Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Emilia sonchifolia on the haematological parameters and histomorphology of the liver of male Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (Pbb).
Material and Methods: 35 mice were divided into; Group 1 (control) given normal saline 0.3 ml, Group 2 passaged with Pbb only, Group 3 passaged with Pbb, and then treated with Coartem®, Group 4 treated with E. sonchifolia 325 mg/kg only, Group 5 treated with E. sonchifolia 650 mg/kg only, Group 6 passaged with Pbb then treated with E. sonchifolia 325 mg/kg, while Group 7 was passaged with Pbb then treated with E. sonchifolia 650 mg/kg. Pbb was passaged intraperitoneally, while the test drug and extracts was given via orogavage once daily.
Results: The result showed significantly (P<0.001) reduced RBC parameters at in Group 5 treated with 650 mg/kg similar with Group 2 compared to Group 1, while there was significant (P<0.01) increased WBC and differentials in Parasitized groups compared with Group 1. The micrographs showed slightly inflamed nuclei in Group 4, with few nuclei shrinkage Group 5, whereas in the parasitized groups treated with the extract there appeared to be hepatoprotection compared to Group 2.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the extract promotes erythropoiesis at 325 mg/kg, but was haemolytic at 650 mg/kg, and exerts its effect possibly through an agonistic and a synergistic activity of its rich bioactive ingredients. It showed mild toxic effect in the histomorphology of the non-parasitized mice at 325 mg/kg and 650 mg/kg, and also appeared to offer hepatoprotection in parasitized mice compared to the parasitized group that had no treatment.
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