Antidiabetic Activities of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Essential Oil in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Open access

Antidiabetic Activities of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Essential Oil in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Background:Foeniculum vulgare Mill (F. Apiaceae) is an ancient common herb and spice known to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, traditionally used as a carminative, a weak diuretic and lactation stimulant.

Aim: To evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill for its hypoglycaemic effect and antioxidant activity in addition to histopathological study in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 3 groups; normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic group receiving orally Foeniculum vulgare Mill essential oil (30 mg/kg bw). The dose of essential oil was chosen according to its LD50. Serum glucose and whole blood glutathione peroxidase were measured in addition to histopathological study of rats kidney and pancreas.

Results: Ingestion of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill to diabetic rats corrected the hyperglycemia from (162.5 ± 3.19 mg/dl) to (81.97 ± 1.97 mg/dl) with p<0.05 and the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase from (59.72 ± 2.78 U/g Hb) to (99.60 ± 6.38 U/g Hb) with p<0.05. Also, improved the pathological changes noticed in their kidney and pancreas.

Conclusion: Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill corrected the hyperglycemia and pathological abnormalities in diabetic induced rats, which could be in part through its antioxidative effect and restoring of redox homeostasis. This makes the possibility of its inclusion in antidiabetic drug industry.

Aboelsoud N H. Herbal medicine in ancient Egypt. J Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(2):082-086.

UNESCO. Culture and Health, Orientation texts- World Decade for Cultural Development Documents CLT/DEC. PRO-Paris: France, 1996:29.

Schmincke KH. Medicinal Plants for forest conservation and healthcare. Non- Wood Forest Products 11, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2003.

Bailey CJ and Day C. Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989;12:553-564.

Aboelsoud NH, Khalil MY, Hussein JS, Oraby FSH and Farrag AR. Antidiabetic effects of Fenugreek alkaliod extract in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats. Journal of Ap plied Sciences Research. 2007;3(10):1073-1083.

Aboelsoud NH, and Khalil M. Antioxidative effects of Allium Cepa essential oil on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Maced J Med Sci. 2010;3(4):344-351.

Tiwari AK and Madhusudana R. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: Present status and future prospects. Curr Sci. 2002;83:30-38.

Bnouham M, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Tahri A, Legssyer A. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity - A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). Int J Diab Metab. 2006;14:1-25.

Sies H. Oxidative Stress: Oxidants and Antioxidants. New York: Academic Press, 1991.

Shishehbor MH, Hazen SL. Antioxidant studies need a change of direction. Cleveland Clinic J Med. 2004;71:285-334.

Schafer FQ, Buettner GR. Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30:1191-1212.

Winterbourn CC, Metodiewa D. The reaction of superoxide with reduced glutathione. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994; 314:284-290.

Shen KK, Ji LL, Chen Y, Yu QM, Wang ZT. Influence of glutathione levels and activity of glutathione-related enzymes in the brains of tumor-bearing mice. Biosci Trends. 2011;5(1):30-7.

Carlsen M H, Halvorsen B L, Holte K, Bøhn K, Dragland K. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutrition Journal. 2010;9:3-7.

Choi EM and Hwang JK. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(6):557-565.

Faudale M, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Poli F, Codina C. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(6):1912-20.

Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9(4):58-61.

Modaress NV, Asadipour M. Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12(3-4):423-7.

Picon PD, Picon RV, Costa AF, Sander GB, Amaral KM, Aboy AL, Henriques AT. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10(1):17.

Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):455-8.

Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-perioxidase system with a noncarcinogenic chromogen. J Clinical Pathology. 1969;22:158-161.

Egyptian Pharmacopoeia. General Organization for Governmental. Printing Office, Ministry of health, Cairo: Egypt, 1984.

Madway W, Prier LE, Wilkinson JS. A text book of veterinary clinical pathology. The Willians Wilking Co. Battimore, 1969.

Ammerman CB, Chapman ML, Bouwman GW, Moxan AL. Glutathione peroxidase estimation. J Animal Science. 1980;51:1381.

Drury RVA, Walligton EA. Carltons histological techniques. 5th ed, Oxford University Press: New York, Pronto, 1980:206.

Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Paolisso G. Oxidative stress and diabetic vascular complications. Diabet Care. 1996;19:257-267.

Oberlay L.W. Free radicals and diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med. 1988;5:113-124.

Lipinski B. Pathophysiology of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. J Diabet Complications. 2001;15:203-210.

Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K, Holte K, Blomhoff R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr. 2003;133:1286-1290.

Srinivasan K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414.

Rshaad B, Azaizeh H, Said O. Tradition and perspectives of Arab herbal medicine: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005;2:475-9.

Conforti F, Statti G, Uzunov D, and Menichini F. Comparative Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Wild and Cultivated Laurus nobilis L. Leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) Coutinho Seeds. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(10):2056-2064.

Miguel MG, Cruz C, Faleiro L, Simões MT, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5(2):319-28.

Tjälve H. Streptozotocin: distribution, metabolism and mechanisms of action. Uppsala J Med Sci. 1983;39:145-147.

Chen YT, Zheng RL, Jia ZJ, Ju Y. Flavonoids as superoxide scavengers and antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med. 1990;9:19-20.

Kröncke KD, Fehsel K, Sommer A, Rodriguez ML, Kolb-Bachofen V. Nitric oxide generation during cellular metabolization of the diabetogenic N-methyl-nitroso-urea: Streptozotocin contributes to islet cell DNA damage. Biol Chem Hoppe-Seyler. 1995:376:179-185.

Nadler JL, Winter L. Free radicals, nitric oxide and diabetic complications. In: ‘Diabetes Mellitus’, edited by DLE Roith, SI Taylor and JM Olefsky. Lippincott-Raven Publishers: Philadelphia, 1996:840-847.

Grankvist K, Marklund SL, Taljedal LB. CuZn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in pancreatic islets and other tissues in the mouse. Biochem J. 1981;199:393-398.

Kanter M, Meral I, Dede S, Gunduz H, Cemek M, Ozbek H, Uygan I. Effects of Nigalla sativa Linn. and Utrica sativa Linn. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. J Vet Med Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003a;50:264-268.

Christophersen BO. Formation of monohydroxy-polyenic fatty acids from lipid peroxides by a glutathione peroxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1968;164:35-46.

Robertson RP, Harmon JS. Pancreatic islet β-cell and oxidative stress: The importance of glutathione peroxidase. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3743-3748.

Nickavar B, Abolhasani FA. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferae fruits from Iran. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009;22(1):30-5.

Schöne F, Vetter A, Hartung H, Bergmann H, Biertümpfel A, Richter G, Müller S, Breitschuh G. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006;90(11-12):500-10.

Barros L, Heleno SA, Carvalho AM, Ferreira IC. Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. from Portugal. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(10):2458-64.

Leegwates DC, Kuper CF. Evaluation of histological changes in the kidneys of the alloxan diabetic rat by means of factor analysis. Food Chem Toxicol. 1984;22(7):551-557.

Das AV, Padayatti PS, Paulose CS. Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelose (L.) Correa ex Roxb. On histological and ultrastructural changes in tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1996;34:341-345.

Neri S, Calvagno S, Mauceri B, Misseri M, Tsami A, Vecchio C, Mastrosimone G, Di Pino A, Maiorca D, Judica A, Romano G, Rizzotto A, Signorelli SS. Effects of antioxidants on post-prandial oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Eur J Nutr. 2010;49(7):409-16.

Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1030:434-41.

Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

The Journal of ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje, Republic of Macedonia on behalf of the Macedonian Donor Registry (MKDR), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.136
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.141


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 361 361 59
PDF Downloads 221 221 32