Acute Effects of Swimming on the Arterial Pressure of Hypertensive Adults

Open access

Acute Effects of Swimming on the Arterial Pressure of Hypertensive Adults

Aim. The purpose of this work was to verify the acute effects of a regular swimming programme on the arterial pressure of hypertensive adults.

Material and methods. The sample was composed of 26 individuals who presented mild to moderate hypertension. The subjects were divided into two groups: the Experimental Group (EG) comprising 13 subjects (four men and nine women) and the Control Group (CG) comprising 13 subjects (seven men and six women), with average ages of 38.40 ± 8.24 and 38.36 ± 8.96 years, respectively. GE individuals took part in a regular swimming programme consisting of three weekly fifty-minute sessions of training (ST) for 10 weeks, whereas GC individuals were instructed not to alter their physical activity and nutritional habits. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine statistical significance (p < 0.05).

Results. At the end of the ten weeks, an increase of 4.8% in Systolic Blood Pressure at rest (from 133.67 ±2.26 to 138.56 ± 3.23) and an increase of 7.8% in Diastolic Blood Pressure (from 83.15 ± 1.50 to 89.67 ± 7.19) were observed.

Conclusion. The results allow us to conclude that a regular swimming programme, consisting of training sessions three times a week for 10 weeks, was not sufficient to significantly alter the acute pressure levels of hypertensive adults.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Hajjar I and Kotchen TA. Trends in prevalence awareness treatment and control of hypertension in the United States 1988-2000. JAMA. 2003;290(2):199-206. PMID:12851274

  • Pescatello LS Franklin BA Fagard R Farquhar WB Kelley GA Ray CA. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004; 36(3):533-53. PMID:15076798

  • [IV Brazilian guidelines in arterial hypertension] IV Brazilian Guidelines in Arterial Hypertension Work Groups. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2004;82 Suppl 4:7-22. PMID:15107944

  • Lima RM Gentil PRV Oliveira RJ Silva JE Gentil MM Loureiro SS. Obesidade e hipertensão arterial (Obesity and hypertension). In: DANTAS EHM. Obesidade e emagrecimento. Shape: 2007:64-91.

  • Ketelhut RG Franz IW Scholze J. Regular Exercise as an effective approach in antihypertensive therapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:(1) 4-8. PMID:14707760

  • Kelley GA Kelley KS. Aerobic exercise and resting arterial pressure in older adults: a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(5):298-303. PMID:11320110

  • Monteiro HL Rolim LMC Squinca DA Silva FC Ticianeli CCC Amaral SL. Efetividade de um programa de exercícios no condicionamento físico perfil metabólico e pressão arterial de pacientes hipertensos (Effectiveness of an exercise program on physical conditioning metabolic profile and arterial pressure of hypertensive patients). Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2007;13(2):107-112.

  • Moreira WD Fuchs FD Ribeiro JP Appel LJ. The effects of two aerobic training intensities on ambulatory arterial pressure in hypertensive individuals: results of randomized trial. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999; 52(7):637-42. PMID:10391657

  • Rachid MB Kaiser S Farinatti PTV Monteiro WD Abreu VG Francischetti E. Efeito do treinamento aeróbio leve e moderado sobre a pressão arterial: metanálise dos estudos randomizados (1966-1999) (Effect of mild and moderate aerobic training on arterial pressure: meta-analysis of randomized studies (1966-1999). Rev Soc Cardiol RJ. 2001;13 (supl.a):13.

  • Cleroux J Feldman RD Petrella RI. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Can Med Assoc J. 1999;160:521-8.

  • American College Of Sports Medicine. Diretrizes do ACSM para os testes de esforço e sua prescrição (ACSM's Guidelines for effort tests and their prescription). Rio de Janeiro: 6.ed. Guanabara Koogan 2003.

  • Liane MPV Ribeiro ML Farinatti PTV. Influěncia de programas não-formais de exercícios (doméstico e comunitário) sobre a aptidão física pressão arterial e variáveis bioquímicas em pacientes hipertensos (Influence of non-formal programs of exercises (domestic and communitary) on the physical aptitude arterial pressure and biochemical variables in hypertensive patients). Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2003;9(5):267-274.

  • Joint Nacional Commitee on Prevention Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Arterial pressure. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Arterial pressure. J Hypertens. 2003;21(6):1206-52.

  • Whitworth JA; World Health Organization International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1983-92. PMID:14597836

  • American Heart Association. 2003 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Dallas TX: American Heart Association 2002.

  • World Health Organization - International Society Of Hypertension. Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. J Hypertens 1999;17(2):151-83. PMID:10067786

  • Fagard RH. Exercise characteristics and the arterial pressure response to dynamic physical training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6 suppl):S484-92. PMID:11427774

  • Tanaka H Basset Dr Jr Howley Et Thompson Dl Ashraf M Rawson Fl. Swimming training lowers the resting arterial pressure in individuals with hypertension. J Hypertens. 1997;15(6):651-7. PMID:9218185

  • Eleotério da Silva J Santos Pereira J José Natali A Gomes de Souza Vale R Henrique Martin Dantas E. Efectos crônicos de um programa regular de natacion sobre la tension arterial de adultos hipertensos (Chronic effects of a regular program of swimming on arterial pressure in hypertensive adults). Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte. 2006;4(2):15-5.

  • Gomes MAM. Equipamentos utilizados para a monitorização residencial da pressão arterial (MRPA) (Equipments used for arterial pressure home monitoring (MRPA). Rev Bras Hipertens. 2003;10:209-12.

  • O'Brien E Pickering T Asmar R et al. Working Group on Arterial pressure Monitoring of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol for validation of arterial pressure measuring devices in adults. Blood Press Monit. 2002;7(1):3-17. PMID:12040236

  • O'Brien E Waeber B Parati G Myers M. Arterial pressure measuring devices: recommendations of the SHE. BMJ 2002;322(7285):531-6. PMID:11230071

  • Guimarães JI Gomes MA Mion D Jr Nobre F Mendonça MA Cruz LL Brandão AA Pierin AM Amodeo C Giogi DM Chaves G Jr Pascoal IF Moreira JC Santello JL Ribeiro JM Mesquita LS Bortolotto LA Gomes MA Kohlmann O Jr Jardim PC Nacimento R Kochs V Oigman W.; Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. [Standardization of equipments and techniques for exams of ambulatory blood pressure mapping and home blood pressure monitoring] Arq Bras Cardiol. 2003;80(2):225-33. PMID:12640518

  • Kelley GA Kelley KS. Progressive resistance exercise and resting arterial pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2000;35:838-43.

  • Kenney MJ Seals R. Postexercise hypotension: key features mechanisms and clinical significance. J Hypertens. 1993;22:653-64.

  • Roltsch MH Mendez T Wilund KR Hagb EM. Acute resistive exercise does not affect ambulatory arterial pressure in young men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6):881-6. PMID:11404651

  • Thompson PD Crouse SF Goodpaster B Kelley D Moyna N Pescatello L. The acute versus the chronic response to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(6):S438-S445. PMID:11427768

  • Monteiro MF Sobral Filho DC. Exercício físico e o controle da pressão arterial (Physical exercise and arterial pressure control). Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004;10(2):513-516.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2016: 0.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.136
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.141

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 113 50 4
PDF Downloads 53 26 0