Unsafe Ingredients Included in Malaysian Food Drug Interphase (FDI) Products: Toyyiban perspective

Atiqah Aziz 1 , Norkartini Abu Bakar 1 , and Zalina Zakaria 1
  • 1 Universiti Malaya Pantai, , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


There are more than 24.1 % of the world’s population are Muslim. Considering the religious preference, Drug Control Authority (DCA) requires manufacturers to declare clearly if their products contain materials of animal origin, as well as unsafe drugs. In general, Health supplements, herbal products, and traditional medicine are classified as “food-drug interphase (FDI) products. FDI products are products with a combination of food ingredients and active ingredients for oral consumption. FDI products are widely believed to be able to prevent or even cure many diseases. However, over the past ten years, there are various FDI products in Malaysia contain dangerous drugs. Hence, this study summarizes the harmful effect of listed unsafe drugs possess in the FDI products, the category of the product, and the type of claim. According to the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency (NPRA) recent report, there are 162 FDI products have been mixed up with illegal drugs which majority of them contain Dexamethasone. The most category of products that contain unsafe drugs is among traditional medicine products followed by health supplements, herbal supplement products, and dietary supplements. These products were commonly marketed to strengthen the veins & joint and pain relief, weight loss, sexual enhancement, energy booster, relieve sinus, and gout. Hence, an awareness of adulteration in pharmaceuticals is crucial to ensure the quality, safety, and effectiveness of the products towards human health.

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