Bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field – A prospective raw material for Polish industry

Open access

Abstract

This paper summarizes information about recently worked bentonite deposits in Slovakia and presents the results of studies on bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field (CSVF). The authors compared the mineralogy of commercial bentonites exploited in the Stara Kremnička (Jelšový potok), Kopernica, and Hliník nad Hronom deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses and microscopy showed that the main component is montmorillonite (37–88%), followed by opal C/CT (5–25%), clinoptilolite (up to 15%), feldspars (3–12%), quartz (up to 8%), biotite (2–5%), and kaolinite (up to 2%). The microscopic imaging provided information valuable for the technological assessment of bentonites, particularly the evaluation of mineralogy determined by XRD. The low variability of the mineral composition of commercial bentonites exploited in the western CSVF, together with the significant reserves and localization of deposits close to the Polish–Slovak state border prove that this raw material deserves more attention from Polish industry.

9. References

  • Adamcová, R., Frankovská, J. & Durmeková, T. (2009). Engineering geological clay research for a radioactive waste repository in Slovakia. Acta Geologica Slovaca, 1, 71-82.

  • Adamcová, R., Suraba, V., Krajňák, A., Rosskopfová, O. & Galamboš, M. (2014). First shrinkage parameters of Slovak bentonites considered for engineered barriers in the deep geological repository of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 302, 737-743. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-014-3292-x.

  • Andrejkovičová, S., Madejová, J., Czímerová, A., Galko, I., Dohrmann, R. & Komadel, P. (2006). Mineralogy and chemistry of Fe-rich bentonite from the Lieskovec deposit (Central Slovakia). Geologica Carpathica, 57, 371-378.

  • Andrejkovičová, S., Janotka, I. & Komadel, P. (2008). Evaluation of geotechnical properties of bentonite from Lieskovec deposit, Slovakia. Applied Clay Science 38, 297-303. DOI:10.1016/j.clay.2007.04.004.

  • Arbaoui, F. & Boucherit, M. N. (2014). Comparison of two Algerian bentonites: Physico-chemical and retention capacity study. Applied Clay Science, 91-92, 6-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2014.02.001.

  • Arslan, M., Abdioğlu, E. & Kadir, S. (2010). Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of bentonite in Upper Cretaceous pyroclastic units of the Tirebolu area, Giresun, Northeast Turkey. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 120-141. DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.2010.0580112.

  • Christidis, G.E. (2013). Assessment of Industrial Clays. Pp. 425-444 in: Handbook of Clay Science. Part B: Techniques and Applications (F. Bergaya & G. Lagaly, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford.

  • Christidis, G. & Dunham, A.C. (1993). Compositional variations in smectites. Part I: Alteration of intermediate volcanic rocks, case study from Milos Island, Greece. Clay Minerals, 28, 255-273.

  • Christidis, G. & Dunham, A.C. (1997). Compositional variations in smectites. Part II: Alteration of acidic precursors, case study from Milos Island, Greece. Clay Minerals, 32, 253-270.

  • Čičel, B., Komadel, P., Bednarikova, E. & Madejová, J. (1992). Mineralogical composition and distribution of Si, AI, Fe, Mg and Ca in the fine fraction of some Czech and Slovak bentonites. Geologica Carpathica – Clays, 43, 3-7.

  • Deliová, J., Adamcová, R., Ottner, F. & Wriessnig, K. (2015). Porovnanie bentonitu BKT s bentonitom K45 z ložiska Kopernica. Študentská vedecká konferencia PriF UK 2015. Zborník recenzovaných príspevkov. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského, 1209-1214. [in Slovak]

  • Galamboš, M., Rosskopfová, O., Kufčáková, J. & Rajec, P. (2011). Utilization of Slovak bentonites in deposition of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 288, 765-777. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-011-0987-0

  • Górniak, K., Szydłak, T., Gaweł, A., Klimek, A., Tomczyk, A., Sulikowski, B., Olejniczak, Z., Motyka, J., Serwicka, E.M., Bahranowski, K. (2016). Commercial bentonite from the Kopernica deposit (Tertiary, Slovakia): a petrographic and mineralogical approach. Clay Minerals, 51, 97-122. DOI: 10.1180/claymin.2016.051.1.09

  • Górniak, K., Szydłak, T., Gaweł, A., Klimek, A., Tomczyk, A., Motyka, J., Bahranowski, K. (2017). Smectite-, silica- and zeolites-bearing raw materials (Hliník nad Hronom bentonite, Slovakia) – A new approach using integrated petrographic and mineralogical studies. Applied Clay Science, 141, 180-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2017.02.032

  • Harvey, C.C. & Lagaly, G. (2013). Industrial Applications. Pp. 451–486 in: Handbook of Clay Science. Part B: Techniques and Applications (F. Bergaya & G. Lagaly, editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford.

  • Konečny, V., Lexa, J., Šimon, L. & Dublan, L. (2001). The Neogene volcanism in central Slovakia. Mineralia Slovaca, 33, 159-179.

  • Koutsopoulou, E., Christidis, G.E. & Marantos, I. (2016). Mineralogy, geochemistry and physical properties of bentonites from the Western Thrace Region and the islands of Samos and Chios, East Aegean, Greece. Clay Minerals, 51, 563-588. DOI: 10.1180/claymin.2016.051.4.03.

  • Kraus, I., Čičel, B. & Machajdik, D. (1982). Origin and genesis of the clays resulting from alteration of rhyolite volcanic rocks in Central Slovakia. Geologica Carpathica, 33, 269-275.

  • Kraus, I., Hroncová, Z., Horský, S. & Mihalič, A. (1989). Ložiská a výskyty bentonitov SSR. Deposits and occurrence of bentonite in the Slovak Socialist Republic. Mineralia Slovaca, 21, 525-531.

  • Kraus, I., Šamajová, E., Šucha, V., Lexa, J. & Hroncová, Z. (1994). Diagenetic and hydrothermal alterations of volcanic rocks into clay minerals and zeolites (Kremnické Vrchy Mts., the Western Carpathians). Geologica Carpathica, 45, 3, 151-158.

  • Lewicka, E. & Wyszomirski, P. (2008). Bentonity słowackie i ich wykorzystanie w polskim przemyśle. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management, 24, 235-250. [in Polish]

  • Madejová, J., Komadel, P., Čičel, B. (1992). Infrared spectra of some Czech and Slovak smectites and their correlation with structural formulas. Geologica Carpathica, Series Clays, 43, 9-12.

  • Panna, W., Wyszomirski, P. & Motyka, J. (2012). Możliwości wykorzystania wybranych surowców smektytowych jako materiałów dla celów hydroizolacyjnych. Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN, 83, 131-145. [in Polish]

  • Record of Mining Areas - Evidencia Dobyvacich Priestorov (2016). Obvodný banský úrad v Banskej Bystrici (stav k 30.9.2016). http://www.hbu.sk/sk/Dobyvacie-priestory/Banska-Bystrica.alej

  • Reynolds, R.C. & Hower, J. (1970). The nature of interlayering in mixed-layer illite-montmorillonites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 18, 25-36.

  • Slovak Minerals Yearbook (2014). Compiled by P. Baláž & D. Kúšik. Bentonite, 61-62. State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur, Spišská Nová Ves – Bratislava.

  • Sohling, U., Ruf, F., Schurz, K., Emmerich, K., Steudel, A., Schuhmann, R., Weidler, P.G., Ralla, K., Riechers, D., Kasper, C. & Scheper, T. (2009). Natural mixture of silica and smectite as a new clayey material in industrial application. Clay Minerals, 44, 525-537. DOI: 10.1180/claymin2009.044.4.525.

  • Stríček, I., Šucha, V., Uhlík, P. & Madejová, J. (2006). Zvetrávanie smektitu na ložiskách bentonitu. Mineralia Slovaca, 38, 337-342. [in Slovak]

  • Stríček, I., Baliak, F. & Uhlík, P. (2011). Mock-up Experiment for Bentonite Barrier Testing. Górnictwo i Geoinżynieria, 35, 2, 543-548.

  • Šamajová, E., Kraus, I. & Lajčákova, A. (1992). Diagenetic alteration of Miocene acidic vitric tuffs of the Jástraba Formation (Kremnické Vrchy Mts., Western Carpathians). Geologica Carpathica – Clays, 1, 27-30.

  • Šucha, V., Galko, I., Madejová, J. & Kraus, I. (1996). Mineralogical and crystallochemical characteristic of bentonite from Zvolenská Slatina region. Mineralia Slovaca, 28, 129-134.

  • Šucha, V. & Kraus, I. (1999). Natural microporous materials of Central Slovakia. In: Misaelides P., Macášek F., Pinnavaia T.J. & Colella C (eds.). Natural microporous materials in environmental technology. NATO Science Series. Series E: Applied Sciences, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 362, 101-107.

  • Uhlík, P., Jánošík, M., Kraus, I., Pentrák, M. & Čaplovičová, M. (2012). Characterisation of bentonite from Hliník nad Hronom deposit (Jastrabá Formation of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, Western Carpathians) Acta Geologica Slovaca, 4, 125-137. [in Slovak with English summary]

  • Wyszomirski, P. & Lewicka, E. (2005). Bentonity jako uniwersalny surowiec wielu dziedzin przemysłu. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management, 21, 5–19. [in Polish]

Mineralogia

The Journal of Mineralogical Society of Poland

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.127
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.197

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 10 10 9
PDF Downloads 2 2 2