Coke and coal as reductants in manganese ore smelting: An experiment

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The effect of coke and bituminous coal on the reduction of medium-grade manganese ore in ferromanganese production was investigated. Charges of 30 kg medium grade manganese ore, 12 kg limestone and varied amounts of coke and coal were smelted in a Submerged Electric Arc Furnace (SAF) at temperatures of 1300°C to 1500°C. The composition of the ferromanganese and the slag were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence. It was found that using coke as a single reductant resulted in a 96% yield of ferromanganese which was higher than by using coal either as a single reductant or in a mixture of coal and coke. It was also found that using coke as a single reductant resulted in the lowest specific energy consumption. Using coal as reductant produced ferromanganese containing high sulfur and phosphorus.

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