Polymetamorphic evolution of pelites inferred from tourmaline zoning – the Rędziny hornfels case study at the eastern contact of the Karkonosze Granite, Sudetes, Poland

Open access


Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Berg G. (1912). Die krystallinen Schiefer des östlichen Riesengebirges. Abhandlungen des Preussischen Geologischen Landesamtes28 1-188. Berlin.

  • Bröcker M. & Franz L. (2000). The contact aureole on Tinos (Cyclades Greece). tourmaline-biotite geothermometry and Rb-Sr geochronology. Mineralogy and Petrology 70 257-283.

  • Carmichael D. M. (1978). Metamorphic bathozones and bathograds. A measure of the depth of post metamorphic uplift and erosion on the regional scale. American Journal of Science 278 769-797.

  • Chaloupský J. (1965). Metamorphic development of the Krkonose crystalline complex. Krystalinikum 3 31-54.

  • Chaloupský J. (ed.) (1989). Geology of the Krkonose and Jizerske hory Mts. Ústřední ústav geologický 288 pp Praha. (in Czech with English summary).

  • da Fonseca-Zang W. A. Zang J. W. & Hofmaister W. (2008). The Ti-influence on the tourmaline color. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 19/6 1186-1192.

  • Frey M. (1969). Die metamorphose des Keupers vom Tafeljura bis zum Lukmanier-Gebeit (Veranderungen tonigmergeliger Geteine von Bereich der Diagenese bis zur stauralith-zone). Beitraege zur Geologishen Karte der Schweiz 137 1-160.

  • Hawthorne F. C. (1996). Structural mechanism for light-element variations in tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist 34 123-132.

  • Hawthorne F. C. & Henry D. J. (1999). Classification of the minerals of the tourmaline group. European Journal of Mineralogy 11 201-215. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/11/2/0201.

  • Henry D. J. & Dutrow B. L. (1996). Metamorphic tourmaline and its petrological applications. In. Grew E.S. Anovitz L.M. (eds) Boron: mineralogy petrology and geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy 33 503-557.

  • Henry D. J. & Guidotti C. V. (1985). Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator mineral. an example from the staurolite-grade metapelites of NW Maine. American Mineralogist 70 1-15.

  • Henry D. J. Guidotti C. V. & Thomson J. A. (2005). The Ti-saturation for low-to-medium pressure metapelitic biotites. Implications for geothermometry and Ti-substitution mechanisms. American Mineralogist 90 316-328. DOI: 10.2138/am.2005.1498.

  • Jeřábek P. Konopásek J. & Žáčková E. (2016). Two-stage exhumation of subducted Saxothuringian continental crust records underplating in the subduction channel and collisional forced folding (Krkonoše-Jizera Mts. Bohemian Massif). Journal of Structural Geology89 214-229. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.06.008.

  • Kodym O. & Svoboda J. (1948). Kaledonská přikrovová stavba Krkonoš a Jizerských hor. Sbornik Státnhó Geologického Ústavu Republiky Československé 15 109-160 Praha. (in Czech).

  • Kryza R. & Mazur S. (1995). Contrasting metamorphic paths in the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera block (Western Sudetes SW Poland). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen 169 157-192.

  • Kryza R. Schaltegger U. Oberc-Dziedzic T. Pin C. & Ovtcharova M. (2014). Geochronology of a composite granitoid pluton. a high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon study of the Variscan Karkonosze Granite (SW Poland). International Journal of Earth Sciences 103 683-696. DOI 10.1007/s00531-013-0995-0

  • Machowiak K. & Armstrong R. (2007). SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the Karkonosze granite. Mineralogia Polonica – Special Papers 31 193-196.

  • Majka J. Mazur S. Kośmińska K. Dudek K. & Klonowska I. (2016). Pressure–temperature estimates of the blueschists from the Kopina Mt. northern Bohemian Massif Poland – Constraints on subduction of the Saxothuringian continental margin. European Journal of Mineralogy 28(6) 1047-1057. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2016/0028-2601.

  • Maška M. (1954). K Tektonicke Analyse Krystalinika Knihovna Ústředního ústavu geologického 258 pp. Praha. (in Czech).

  • Mazur S. (1995). Structural and metamorphic evolution of the country rocks at the eastern contact of the Karkonosze granite in the southern Rudawy Janowickie Mts and Lasocki Range. Geologia Sudetica 29 31-98 (in Polish English summary).

  • Mazur S. & Aleksandrowski P. (2001). The Teplá(?)/Saxothuringian suture in the Karkonosze-Izera massif Western Sudetes Central European Variscides. International Journal of Earth Sciences 90 341-360. DOI: 10.1007/s005310000.

  • Mazur S. & Kryza R. (1996). Superimposed compressional and extensional tectonics in the Karkonosze-Izera Block NE Bohemian Massif. In. Oncken O. & Janssen C. (eds.) Basement Tectonics 11 Europe and Other Regions. Potsdam Kluwer Dordrecht 51-66.

  • Mochnacka K. Oberc-Dziedzic T. Mayer W. & Pieczka A. (2008). Ti remobilization and sulphide/sulphoarsenide mineralization in amphibolites: effect of granite intrusion (the Karkonosze-Izera Massif SW Poland). Geological Quarterly 52(4) 349-368.

  • Mochnacka K. Pieczka A. Gołębiowska B. & Kozłowski A. (2001). Cassiterite from Rędziny and its relationship to the tin-bearing schist of Izera area (SW Poland). [in.] A. Piestrzyński et al. (eds.). Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Balkema Rotterdam 457-460.

  • Oberc J. (1960). Eastern Karkonosze tectonics and their position in the Sudeten Structures. Acta Geologica Polonica 10(1) 1-48 (in Polish with English summary).

  • Oberc-Dziedzic T. Kryza R. Mochnacka K. & Larionov A. (2010). Ordovician passive continental margin magmatism in the Central-European Variscides. U–Pb zircon data from the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera Massif Sudetes SW Poland. International Journal of Earth Sciences99(1) 27-46. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0382-4.

  • Oliver G. J. H. Corfu F. & Krough T. E. (1993). U–Pb ages from SW Poland: evidence for a Caledonian suture zone between Baltica and Gondwana. Journal of the Geological Society of London 150 355-369.

  • Pattison D. R. M. (2001). Instability of Al2SiO5 “triple point” assemblages in muscovite+biotite+quartz bearing metapelites with implications. American Mineralogist 86 1414-1424.

  • Pattison D. R. M. & Tracy R. J. (1991). Phase equilibria and thermobarometry of metapelites. In. D.M. Kerrick Ed. Contact metamorphism Reviews in Mineralogy 26 105-206.

  • Pattison D. R. M. Spear F. S. Debuhr C. L. Cheney J. T. & Guidotti C. V. (2002). Thermodynamic modeling of the reaction muscovite+cordierite→Al2SiO5+biotite+quartz+H2O: constraints from natural assemblages and implications for the metapelitic petrogenetic grid. Journal of metamorphic Geology 20 99-118. DOI: 10.1046/j.0263-4929.2001.356.356.x.

  • Pirajno F. (1992). Hydrothermal mineral deposits. Springer Verlag Berlin.

  • Pieczka A. & Kraczka J. (2004). Oxidized tourmalines – a combined chemical XRD and Mössbauer study. European Journal of Mineralogy 16(2) 309-321. DOI: 10.1127/0935-1221/2004/0016-0309.

  • Pieczka A. Gołębiowska B. & Parafiniuk J. (2009). Conditions of formation of polymetallic mineralization in the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze granite. the case of Rędziny southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist 47(4) 765-786. DOI: 10.3749/canmin.47.4.765.

  • Pouchou J. L. & Pichor F. (1985). “PAP” (phi-rho-z) procedure for improved quantitative microanalysis. In. Armstrong J.T. (ed) Microbeam Analysis. San Francisco Press San Francisco 104-106.

  • Seston R. Winchester J. A. Piasecki M. A. J. Crowley Q. G. & Floyd P. A. (2000). A structural model for the western-central Sudetes. a deformed stack of Variscan thrust sheets. Journal of the Geological Society London157 1155-1167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs.157.6.1155.

  • Słaby E. & Kozłowski A. (2005). Composistion of tourmalines from tin-tungsten-bearing country rock of the Variscan Karkonosze granitoid – a record of the wall rock and hydrothermal fluid interaction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen 181 245-263. DOI: 10.1127/0077-7757/2005/0020.

  • Słaby E. Götze J. Wörner G. Simon K. Wrzalik R. & Śmigielski M. (2008). K-feldspar phenocrysts in microgranular magmatic enclaves. a cathodoluminescence and geochemical study of crystal growth as a marker of magma mingling dynamics. Lithos105(1) 85-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2008.02.006.

  • Słaby E. & Martin H. (2008). Mafic and felsic magma interaction in granites: the Hercynian Karkonosze Pluton (Sudetes Bohemian Massif). Journal of Petrology49(2) 353-391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm085.

  • Szałamacha M. & Szałamacha J. (1968). The metamorphic series of the Karkonosze-Izera Mountains Block. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego 222 33-76 (in Polish with English summary).

  • Teisseyre J. H. (1971). On the age and sequence of beds in the metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie range and Lasocki Ridge. Geologia Sudetica 5 165-210 (in Polish with English summary).

  • Teisseyre J. H. (1973). Metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie and Lasocki Grzbiet ranges. Geologia Sudetica 8 7-120 (in Polish with English summary).

  • Winkler H. G. F. (1979). Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks 5th ed. Springer-Verlag New York-Heidelberg-Berlin 348 pp.

  • Žáčková E. Konopásek J. P. Jeřábek P. Finger F. J. & Košler J. (2010). Early Carboniferous blueschist facies metamorphism in metapelites of the West Sudetes (northern Saxothuringian Domain Bohemian Massif). Journal of Metamorphic Geology28 361-379. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00869.x.

  • Žák J. Verner K. Sláma J. Kachlík V. & Chlupáčová M. (2013). Multistage magma emplacement and progressive strain accumulation in the shallow-level Krkonoše–Jizera plutonic complex Bohemian Massif. Tectonics 32 1493-1512. DOI: 10.1002/tect.20088.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.48

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.14

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 164 164 10
PDF Downloads 91 91 6