External Image of a University Playing the Role of an Employer and the Gender of Potential Young Employees

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Summary

In the article the chosen aspects related to perceiving the university in the role of employer by young potential employees are presented. This paper has the theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part on the results of cognitive-critical analysis of the world literature the necessity to form the employer's image in the case of universities is underlined. This activity becomes more and more important because of the growth of challenges staying before universities. Despite this there is the visible theoretical and research gap in the scope of analysing this group of subjects as the employers. Its reduction should be started from identifying the connotations which potential employees have in the case of universities as the employers. It was one of the main research goals of the article. In the empirical part of the paper the results of primary research conducted among representatives of mentioned segment of market are presented. On the base of the results of factor analysis conducted in the case of women and in the case of men two research hypotheses were verified preliminarily. It can be stated that women perceive universities in the role of employer worse than men.

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  • 1 The perception of the employer influences both the current employees (e.g. by stimulating their engagement (see: B. Kunerth R. Mosley Applying employer brand management to employee engagement "Strategic HR Review" 2011 vol. 10 no. 3 pp. 19-26)) and potential employees (e.g. by attracting them to a particular employer) obviously if his image is positive.

  • 2 It is worth emphasizing here that over 60% of the representatives of Gen Z (people born between 1995 and 2012) would like to work for many years for the same employer which means a clear change of attitudes and behaviour compared to the attitudes dominant among the generation of Milennials who were associated with almost complete abandonment of loyalty to the employer (see. Why employers are reaching out to the next generation of workers: Gen Z "Chicago Tribune" 2017 http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-generation-z-workforce-0402-biz-20170331-story.html (03.04.2017); D. Stillman J. Stillman Gen Z @ Work. How the next generation is transforming the workplace? Harper Business New York 2017).

  • 3 With regard to the expectations of employers research is conducted almost only on companies (e.g. T. Tóth-Téglás E. Hlédik L. Fónadová An Analysis of Employer Requirements of University Graduates "Acta Polytechnica Hungarica" 2016 vol. 13 no. 5 pp. 169-188) at the same time hardly anyone remembers that universities are also employers.

  • 4 This has been confirmed by surveys conducted cyclically among Poles by Public Opinion Research Centre CBOS (see: O stanie szkolnictwa wyższego i źródłach jego finansowania. Komunikat z badań Fundacja Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2011/K_012_11.PDF (03.06.2017)). At the same time ever more complex formal procedures don't necessarily have a favourable impact on the internal image (see: J. Brdulak Wyzwania w zarządzaniu jakością na uczelniach w Polsce - dobre praktyki "Edukacja Ekonomistów i Menedżerów" 2015 vol. 3 nr 37 p. 13-21) as they often make it hard for employees to efficiently carry out their tasks.

  • 5 Research in this area is conducted by among others G. K. Saini A. Gopal N. Kumari Employer Brand and Job Application Decisions: Insights from the Best Employers "Management and Labour Studies" 2015 vol. 40 iss. 1-2 pp. 34-51; F. Lievens J. E. Slaughter Employer Image and Employer Branding: What We Know and What We Need to Know "Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior" 2016 vol. 3 pp. 407-440; M. Wallace I. Lings R. Cameron N. Sheldon Attracting and Retaining Staff: The Role of Branding and Industry Image [in:] R. Harris T. Short (eds.) Workforce Development Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014 pp. 19-36; S. Knox Ch. Freeman Measuring and Managing Employer Brand Image in the Service Industry "Journal of Marketing Management" 2006 vol. 22 pp. 695-716; A. Dewalska-Opitek Model kreowania zintegrowanego wizerunku przedsiębiorstwa "Zeszyty Naukowe. Polityki Europejskie Finanse i Marketing" 2010 nr 3 (52) p. 219-229.

  • 6 What is investigated is among others the image of the employer in the context of organizational culture juxtaposed with the experiences of buyers (see among others R. Mosley Customer Experience Organizational Culture and the Employer Brand "Journal of Brand Management" 2007 vol. 15 no. 2 pp. 123-134) but obviously the investigated entities are companies not universities.

  • 7 It is possible to find only works (there aren't too many of them though) concerning the legal or ethical aspects of the universities' role as an employer (among others: M. S. Anglade The University as an Employer: A Study of the Application of Title VII to the Modern American Institution of Higher Education Florida State University College of Education 2015 http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_2015fall_Anglade_fsu_0071E_12952 (03.06.2017)) but there is definitely a gap with regard to works devoted to the image of the university as an employer.

  • 8 Authors usually limit themselves to this group of requirements pointing to the growing challenges ahead of universities as entities preparing graduates to enter the labour market (see: P.E. Barton R.J. Coley The Mission of the High School a New Consensus of the Purposes of Public Education? Educational Testing Service Princeton NJ 2011). At the same time the relationship between the university as an employer and the potential employees is rarely analysed.

  • 9 They were preceded by non-structured interviews with 50 people.

  • 10 Non-random choice of the sample was applied.

  • 11 See: H. Abdi L.J. Williams (2010). Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics vol. 2 iss. 4 pp. 433-459.

  • 12 The same number that is six components were distinguished for the whole surveyed sample. A detailed analysis of associations with the university as an employer in their case was presented in the article by A. Baruk A. Goliszek (2017). titled Zewnętrzny wizerunek uczelni w roli pracodawcy jako podstawa segmentacji młodych potencjalnych pracowników. Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych vol. 23 iss. 1 p. 79-96.

  • 1. Abdi H. Williams L.J. (2010). Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics vol. 2 iss. 4 pp. 433-459.

  • 2. Anglade M.S. (2015). The University as an Employer: A Study of the Application of Title VII to the Modern American Institution of Higher Education. Florida State University College of Education http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_2015fall_Anglade_fsu_0071E_12952 access: 03.06.2017.

  • 3. Barton P.E. Coley R.J. (2011). The Mission of the High School a New Consensus of the Purposes of Public Education? Princeton NJ: Educational Testing Service.

  • 4. Baruk A. Goliszek A. (2017). Zewnętrzny wizerunek uczelni w roli pracodawcy jako podstawa segmentacji młodych potencjalnych pracowników. Marketing Instytucji Naukowych i Badawczych vol. 23 iss. 1 pp. 79-96.

  • 5. Brdulak J. (2015). Wyzwania w zarządzaniu jakością na uczelniach w Polsce - dobre praktyki. Edukacja Ekonomistów i Menedżerów vol. 3 iss. 37 pp. 13-21.

  • 6. Dewalska-Opitek A. (2010). Model kreowania zintegrowanego wizerunku przedsiębiorstwa. Zeszyty Naukowe. Polityki Europejskie Finanse i Marketing no. 3 (52) pp. 219-229.

  • 7. Knox S. Freeman Ch. (2006). Measuring and Managing Employer Brand Image in the Service Industry. Journal of Marketing Management vol. 22 pp. 695-716.

  • 8. Kunerth B. Mosley R. (2011). Applying employer brand management to employee engagement. Strategic HR Review vol. 10 no. 3 pp. 19-26.

  • 9. Lievens F. Slaughter J.E. (2016). Employer Image and Employer Branding: What We Know and What We Need to Know. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior vol. 3 pp. 407-440.

  • 10. Mosley R. (2007). Customer Experience. Organizational Culture and the Employer Brand. Journal of Brand Management vol. 15 no. 2 pp. 123-134.

  • 11. O stanie szkolnictwa wyższego i źródłach jego finansowania. Komunikat z badań Fundacja Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2011/K_012_11.PDF access: 03.06.2017.

  • 12. Saini G.K. Gopal A. Kumari N. (2015). Employer Brand and Job Application Decisions: Insights from the Best Employers. Management and Labour Studies vol. 40 iss. 1-2 pp. 34-51.

  • 13. Stillman D. Stillman J. (2017). Gen Z @ Work. How the next generation is transforming the workplace. Harper Business New York.

  • 14. Tóth-Téglás T. Hlédik E. Fónadová L. (2016). An Analysis of Employer Requirements of University Graduates. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica vol. 13 no. 5 pp. 169-188.

  • 15. Wallace M. Lings I. Cameron R. Sheldon N. (2014). Attracting and Retaining Staff: The Role of Branding and Industry Image. W: R. Harris T. Short (eds.) Workforce Development. Springer Science+Business Media Singapore pp. 19-36.

  • 16. Why employers are reaching out to the next generation of workers: Gen Z. (2017). Chicago Tribune http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-generation-z-workforce-0402-biz-20170331-story.html access: 03.04.2017.

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