Results of many years research of geo-botanic of the Kurile Islands are presented in article. Vegetation spatial structure of the Kurile Islands is conditioned by complex interactions of endogenous and exogenous factors. Meridional extension for almost 1200 km determines a significant climatic differenciation within archipelago. It is resulted in changes of vertical vegetation zones in the different regions of Kurile Islands. System of hot and cold currents in the adjacent sea water is the factor of asymmetry of vegetation. Special traits of archipelago are determined by the volcanic activity
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