North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), monthly averages of precipitation in the Baghdad station, and petrologic tracer proxy data for ocean properties in the North Atlantic (NA) have been used in an attempt to identify climatic conditions in Iraq during the study period. The study showed that contemporary changes in precipitation in Iraq are associated with NAO, as a negative relationship is found between them. Moreover, the study found that there is a strong negative correlation between NAOI and SST in NA, where drift ice indices explain between 33–36% of the NAOI variability.
The prolonged of cold Holocene periods led to a radical oceanography and atmospheric changes in the NA and the Mediterranean Sea, effectively contributing to the prevalence of cold and drought in the EM, including Iraq.
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