Heat stress and occupational health and safety – spatial and temporal differentiation

Krzysztof Błażejczyk 1 , Jarosław Baranowski 2  and Anna Błażejczyk 3
  • 1 Department of Climatology Institute of Phisical Geography Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies University of Warsaw
  • 2 Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences
  • 3 Bioklimatologia. Laboratory of Bioclimatology and Environmental Ergonomics


Evidence of climatic health hazards on the general population has been discussed in many studies but limited focus is placed on developing a relationship between climate and its effects on occupational health. Long working hours with high physical activity can cause health problems for workers ranging from mild heat cramps to severe heat stroke leading to death. The paper presents the possible risk of heat hazard to outdoor workers, using the example of Warsaw. The heat stress hazard, defined by WBGT values above 26 and 28°C and UTCI above 32 and 38°C, is assessed from two perspectives: its spatial distribution on a local scale and its temporal changes during the 21st century due to climate change. City centre and industrial districts were identified as the places with the greatest heat stress hazard. The number of heat stress days in a year (as predicted for the 21st century) is increasing, meaning that heat-related illnesses are more likely to have a direct impact on workers’ health.

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