Social and ethnic segregation in the Paris metropolitan area at the beginning of the 21st century

Open access


Although the socio-spatial aspect of cities in the globalisation era has gained a new dimension, it cannot be explained by the globalisation process alone. The article presents the problem of social and ethnic segregation in Île-de-France between 1999 and 2009. Socio-economic and demographic data are used to measure indices of segregation and the description of characteristic chosen districts to show its spatial inertia. The analysis revealed a higher degree of social segregation in the entire Paris metropolitan region than in the city of Paris itself. The upper class is the most segregated group, followed by foreigners, immigrants and the lower class. The pattern emphasises the important role of autosegregation factors and functions. It is observed that a constant division into homogenous parts exists in the prestigious and affluent western districts and the impoverished immigrant north-eastern districts. Socio-spatial tendencies reveal the growing importance of the upper class.

Bidoux, P-E & Virot, P 2011, ‘L’accès à l’emploi et au logement s’améliore pour les immigrés à Paris mais les inégalités et les discriminations persistent’, Ile-de-France à la page, no. 376. Available from: [1 May 2012].

Blakley, EJ & Snyder, MG 1997, Fortress America. Gated Communities in the United States, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Castells, M 2000, End of Millennium, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, pp. 70-170

Claval, P 1981, La logique des villes. Essai d’urbanologie, LITE C, Paris.

Grzegorczyk, A 2012, ‘Socio-spatial diversity of Marseille at the turn of the 21st century’, Bulletin of Geography, no. 17, pp. 45-55. Available from: [1 July 2012]

Guérois, M & Paulus, F 2002, ‘Commune centre, agglomération, aire urbaine : qeulle pertinence pour l’étude des villes ?’, Cybergeo : Revue européenne de Géographie, no 212.

INSEE , Available from: [1 July 2012].

Jałowiecki, B 2010, Miasto i przestrzeń w perspektywie socjologicznej, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLA R, Warszawa, pp. 246-262

Knox, P & Pinch, S 2000, Urban Social Geography, Prentice Hall, England, pp. 227-247

La Cité interdite 2008, Le Point, Available from: [10 September 2012].

Lajoie, G 1998, ‘La ségrégation des populations urbaines de 1982 à 1990’, in : Données urbaines, eds D Pumain, Anthropos, Paris, pp. 191-206.

Massey, DS & Denton, NA 1988, ‘The Dimensions of Residential Segregation’, Social Forces, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 281-315, Available from: [1 May 2012].

Maurin, É 2004, Le ghetto français. Enquête sur le séparatisme social, La République des Idées, Seuil, France

Maxwell, R 2010, ‘Political Participation in France among Non-European-Origin Migrants: Segregation or Integration’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, March 2010, pp. 425-443.

Mitchell, K 2011, ‘Marseille’s Not for Burning: Comparative Networks of Integration and Exclusion in Two French Cities’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 404-423.

Pan Ké Shon, JL 2011, ‘La ségrégation des immigrés en France : état des lieux’, Population – Sociétés, no 477, Available from: [1 May 2012].

Préteceille, E 2006, ‘La ségrégation social a-t-elle augmenté ? La métropole parisienne antre polarisation et mixité’, Sociétés contemporaines, 2006/2, no 62, pp. 69-93, Available from: [1 June 2012].

Rhein, C 1998, ‘Globalisation, Social Change and Minorities in Metropolitan Paris : The Emergence of New Class Patterns’, Urban Studies, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 429-447.

Safi, M 2009, ‘La dimension spatial de l’intégration : évolution de la ségrégation des population immigrées en France entre 1968 et 1999’, Revue française de sociologie, 2009/3, vol. 50, pp. 521-552, Available from: www.cairn.ifno. [1 June 2012].

Sassen, S 1991, The Global City. New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Trajectoires et origines enquets (Trajectories and origines survey). Available from: [1 July 2012].

Węcławowicz, G 2007, Geografia społeczna miast, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, pp. 116-128./mixed-citation

Miscellanea Geographica

Regional Studies on Development

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.40

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.227
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.404

Covered by e.g. Web of Science Core Collection by Clarivate Analytics, and SCOPUS by Elsevier
14 points in the Ministerial journal value rating scale


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 81 81 39
PDF Downloads 13 13 6