Concise Review: SARS-CoV-2 Persistence in the Environment and Its Sensitivity to Biocides

E.B. Brusina 1  and E.A. Chezganova 1
  • 1 Department of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical University, Kemerovo, Russian Federation

Abstract

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health threat. This review summarizes comprehensive research findings about the SARS-CoV-2 persistence in inanimate surfaces and opportunities for applying biocides to limit spread of COVID-19. SARS-CoV2 is highly stable at 4°C but sensitive to heat and extremely stable in a wide range of pH values at room temperature. Coronaviruses also well survive in suspension. Desiccation has a more severe effect. SARS-CoV-2 can survive in the air for hours and on surfaces for days. Hospitals are significant epicenters for the human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 for healthcare workers. The most contaminated SARS-CoV-2 zones and objects in isolation wards, in intensive care unit specialized for novel coronavirus pneumonia, are under discussion. SARS-CoV2 is sensitive to standard disinfection methods. Studies revealed that 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite inactivated SARS-CoV2 in 1 minute exposition; while 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate were less effective. Both ethanol and isopropanol were able to reduce viral titers after 30-seconds exposure. It was found for reusing personal protective equipment vaporized hydrogen peroxide treatment exhibits the best combination of rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and preservation of N95 respirator integrity under the experimental conditions. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 can be highly stable in a favourable environment, but it is also susceptible to standard disinfection methods. Environmental infection control of the air and especially for surfaces is considered as a mandatory step in addition to limiting person-to-person contact.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Guarner J. Three Emerging Coronaviruses in Two Decades The Story of SARS, MERS, and Now COVID-19. Am J Clin Pathol. 2020;153(4):420–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa029

  • 2. Čivljak R, Markotić A, Kuzman I. The third coronavirus epidemic in the third millennium: what’s next? Croat Med J. 2020;61(1):1–4. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2020.61.1

  • 3. World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2020. [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int

  • 4. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

  • 5. Ul Qamar MT, Alqahtani SM, Alamri MA, Chen LL. Structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and anti-COVID-19 drug discovery from medicinal plants. J Pharm Anal. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.03.009

  • 6. Jiang S, Hillyer C, Du L. Neutralizing Antibodies against SARSCoV-2 and Other Human Coronaviruses. Trends Immunol. 2020;41(5):355–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.007

  • 7. Otter JA, Donskey C, Yezli S, Douthwaite S, Goldenberg SD, Weber DJ. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and infl uenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination. J Hosp Infect. 2016;92(3):235–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2015.08.027

  • 8. Dowell SF, Simmerman JM, Erdman DD, Wu JS, Chaovavanich A, Javadi M, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona-virus on hospital surfaces. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(5):652–57. https://doi.org/10.1086/422652

  • 9. Geller C, Varbanov M, Duval RE. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its infl uence on the development of new antiseptic strategies. Viruses. 2012;4(11):3044–68. https://doi.org/10.3390/v4113044

  • 10. Chin A, Chu J, Perera M, Hui K, Yen H-L, Chanet M, et al. Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions [posted 2020 Mar 27]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.03.15.20036673. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.15.20036673

  • 11. Duan SM, Zhao XS, Wen RF, Huang JJ, Pi GH, Zhang SX, et al. Stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and environment and its sensitivity to heating and UV irradiation. Biomed Environ Sci. 2003;16(3):246–55.

  • 12. Lamarre A, Talbot PJ. Effect of pH and temperature on the infectivity of human coronavirus 229E. Can J Microbiol. 1989;35(10):972–4. https://doi.org/10.1139/m89-160

  • 13. Shirbandi K, Barghandan S, Mobinfar O, Rahim F. Inactivation of Coronavirus with Ultraviolet Irradiation: What? How? Why? [posted 2020 Apr 10]. SSRN. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3571418

  • 14. Lai MY, Cheng PK, Lim WW. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(7):e67–71. https://doi.org/10.1086/433186

  • 15. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Rapid Expert Consultation on SARS-CoV-2 Survival in Relation to Temperature and Humidity and Potential for Seasonality for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 7, 2020). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2020. https://doi.org/10.17226/25771

  • 16. Sizun J, Yu MW, Talbot PJ. Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying on surfaces: a possible source of hospital-acquired infections. J Hosp Infect. 2000;46(1):55–60. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhin.2000.0795

  • 17. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022

  • 18. Warnes SL, Little ZR, Keevil CW. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials. mBio. 2015;6(6):e01697–15. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01697-15

  • 19. Sizun J, Yu MW, Talbot PJ. Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying on surfaces: a possible source of hospital-acquired infections. J Hosp Infect. 2000;46:55–60. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhin.2000.0795

  • 20. Rabenau HF, Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Preiser W, Doerr HW. Stability and inactivation of SARS coronavirus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005;194:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-004-0219-0

  • 21. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):1564–67. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973

  • 22. Jiang Y, Wang H, Chen Y, He J, Chen L, Liu Y, et al. Clinical Data on Hospital Environmental Hygiene Monitoring and Medical Staff Protection during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak [posted 2020 Mar 02]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.02.25.20028043. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.25.20028043

  • 23. Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera V, Morwitzer MJ, Creager H, Santarpia GW, et al. Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center [posted 2020 Mar 26]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.03.23.20039446. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.23.20039446

  • 24. Moriarty LF, Plucinski MM, Marston BJ, Kurbatova EV, Knust B, Murray EL, et al. Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships — Worldwide, February–March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(12):347–52. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3

  • 25. Ye G, Lin H, Chen L, Wang S, Zeng Z, Wang W, et al. Environmental contamination of the SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare premises: An urgent call for protection for healthcare workers [posted 2020 Mar 16]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.03.11.20034546. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.11.20034546

  • 26. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929–36. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191

  • 27. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Liu Y, Li X, Shan H. Evidence for Gastrointestinal Infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterology. 2020;158(6):1831–1833.e3. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.02.055

  • 28. Medema G, Heijnen L, Elsinga G, Italiaander R, Brouwer A. Presence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 in sewage [posted 2020 Mar 30]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.03.29.20045880. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.29.20045880

  • 29. Wu F, Xiao A, Zhang J, Gu X, Lee WL, Kauffman K, et al. SARS-CoV-2 titers in wastewater are higher than expected from clinically confirmed cases [posted 2020 Apr 07]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.04.05.20051540. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.05.20051540

  • 30. Ahmed W, Angel N, Edson J, Bibby K, Bivins A, O’Brien JW, et al. First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: A proof of concept for the waste-water surveillance of COVID-19 in the community. Sci Total Environ. 2020;728:138764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138764

  • 31. Wurtzer S, Marechal V, Mouchel JM, Maday Y, Teyssou R, Richard E, et al. Evaluation of lockdown impact on SARSCoV-2 dynamics through viral genome quantification in Paris wastewaters [posted 2020 May 06]. medRxiv. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.12.20062679

  • 32. La Rosa G, Iaconelli M, Mancini P, Ferraro GB, Veneri C, Bonadonna L, et al. First detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewaters in Italy [posted 2020 May 07]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.04.25.20079830. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.25.20079830

  • 33. La Rosa G, Bonadonna L, Lucentini L, Kenmoe S, Suffredini E. Coronavirus in water environments: Occurrence, persistence and concentration methods - A scoping review. Water Res. 2020;179:115899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115899

  • 34. Kratzel A, Todt D, V’kovski P, Steiner S, Gultom ML, Thao TTN, et al. Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols [posted 2020 Mar 17]. bioRxiv. 2020:2020.03.10.986711. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.10.986711

  • 35. Ranney ML, Griffeth V, Jha AK. Critical Supply Shortages - The Need for Ventilators and Personal Protective Equipment during the Covid-19 Pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):e41. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2006141

  • 36. Fischer RJ, Morris DH, van Doremalen N, Sarchette S, Matson MJ, Bushmaker T, et al. Assessment of N95 respirator decontamination and re-use for SARS-CoV-2 [posted 2020 Apr 24]. medRxiv. 2020:2020.04.11.20062018. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.11.20062018

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search