Poor Knowledge of the Harmful Effects of Shisha Among Shisha Smokers: Findings from a Preliminary Survey in Northwest Nigeria

Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi 1 , 2 , 3 , Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed 2 , 4 , Njideka Jacob Nwafor 1 , 2 , Omotayo Francis Fagbule 1 , 3 , 5 , Miracle Ayomikun Adesina 1 , 3 , Bashar Muhammad Aliyu 2  and Precious Ayomide Ogundipe 1 , 6
  • 1 Campaign for Head and Neck Cancer Education (CHANCE) Program, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 2 Kebbi State Medical Centre, Kalgo, Nigeria
  • 3 Planning Research and Statistics Unit, Mental and Oral Health Development Organization, Sapele, Nigeria
  • 4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, India
  • 5 Department of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 6 Department of Statistics, Akure, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior with heavy risks accompanying its prolonged practice. Unfortunately, more and more people are indulging in tobacco smoking habits despite the public health education programs going on worldwide about the dangers associated with tobacco smoking behavior. This study aims to survey active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area (LGA), Kebbi State, Nigeria, on the awareness of the harmful effects associated with shisha smoking.

Methods: This study was a survey of 45 active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi LGA. Snowballing technique was adopted in participants’ recruitment. Study instrument was a questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.

Results: Majority (32/45) of the participants were males, 16 had secondary school education, and 19 were within age range of 15 to 24 years. The majority (25/45) of them began to smoke shisha at the age of 18 years or more; also, 20 participants smoked shisha in all the 30 days prior to their participation in this study. Less than half of the study participants knew that: shisha is a stimulant (6/45), shisha smoke contains carbon monoxide (10/45), and the liquid in shisha could be replaced with alcohol (15/45). However, more than half of the participants knew that shisha contains nicotine (23/45) and tobacco (25/45). Only 16, 13, 11, 9, 5, 10, and 13 participants knew that shisha smoking could lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, increase in the risk of infections, reduced baby weight in pregnancy, gum and mouth disease, eye disease and blindness, and harm to non-smokers, respectively.

Conclusion: Many of the active shisha smokers surveyed in this study began smoking shisha at a young age. Also, a significant proportion of them were unaware of the health hazards associated with shisha use; hence the need to educate them and even the Nigerian public on the dangers associated with shisha use.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Saha SP, Bhalla DK, Whayne TF, Gairola CG. Cigarette smoke and adverse health effects: An overview of research trends and future needs. Int J Angiol. 2007;16(3):77–83.

  • 2. Aslam HM, Saleem S, German S, Qureshi WA. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review. Int Arch Med. 2014;7:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1755-7682-7-16

  • 3. Mishra A, Chaturvedi P, Datta S, Sinukumar S, Jeshi P, Garg A. Harmful effects of nicotine. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2015;36(1):24–31. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0971-5851.151771

  • 4. Tahlil T, Woodman RJ, Coveney J, Ward PR. The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:367. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1471-2458-13-367

  • 5. Agaku I, Akinyele A, Oluwafemi A. Tobacco control in Nigeria – policy recommendations. Tob Induc Dis. 2012;10:8. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1617-9625-10-8

  • 6. New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) [Internet]. Singapore: Central Narcotics Bureau; 2017 Sep 18 [cited 2018 Dec 17]. Available from: https://www.cnb.gov.sg/educational-resources/for-youths/articles/article/Index/new-psychoactive-substances-%28nps%29

  • 7. Peacock A, Leung J, Larney S, Colledge S, Hickman M, Rehm J, et al. Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report. Addiction. 2018;113:1905–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14234

  • 8. O’Connor RJ. Non-cigarette tobacco products: What have we learned and where are we headed? Tob Control. 2012;21(2):181–90. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050281

  • 9. Liang Y, Zheng X, Zeng DD, Zhou X, Leischow SJ, Chung W. Exploring How the Tobacco Industry Presents and Promotes Itself in Social Media. JMIR. 2015;17(1):e24. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3665

  • 10. Petruoulia I, Vardavas C, Fillippidis F, Peleki T, Behrakis P, Quah ACK, et al. The association between the awareness of the effects of smoking/secondhand smoke and the desire to quit. Tob Induc Dis. 2018;16(Suppl 1):A710. https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/84622

  • 11. Oncken C, Mckee S, Krishnan-Sarin S, O’Malley S, Mazure CM. Knowledge and perceived risk of smoking-related conditions: a survey of cigarette smokers. Prev Med. 2005;40(6):779–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.024

  • 12. Kanmodi KK, Fagbule OF, Aladelusi TO. Prevalence of shisha (waterpipe) smoking and awareness of head and neck cancer among Nigerian secondary school students: A preliminary survey. Int Public Health J. 2018;10(2):209–14.

  • 13. City Population. Birnin Kebbi [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 17]. Available from: https://www.citypopulation.de/php/nigeria-admin.php?adm2id=NGA022006

  • 14. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Birnin Kebbi: Nigeria [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 17]. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/place/Birnin-Kebbi

  • 15. van der Merwe N, Banoobhai T, Gqweta A, Gwala A, Masiea T, Misra M, et al. Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students. S Afr Med J. 2013;103(11):847–9. https://doi.org/10.7196/samj.7448

  • 16. Meo SA, AlShehri BB, Barayyan OR, Bawazir AS, Ala-nazi OA, Al-Zuhair AR. Effect of shisha (waterpipe) smoking on lung functions and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adult shisha smokers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(9):9638–48. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph110909638

  • 17. Misek R, Patte C. Carbon monoxide toxicity after lighting coals at a hookah bar. J Med Toxicol. 2014;10(3):295–98. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs13181-013-0368-x

  • 18. Kadhum M, Sweidan A, Jaffery AE, Al-Saadi A, Madden B. A review of health effects of smoking shisha. Clin Med (Lond). 2015;15(3):263–6.

  • 19. Cobb CO, Sahmarani K, Eissenberg T, Shihadeh A. Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a “healthy” tobacco-free alternative. Toxicol Lett. 2012;215:70–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.09.026

  • 20. Sepetdjian E, Saliba N, Shihadeh A. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3242–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.08.033

  • 21. Hammal F, Chappell A, Wild TC, Kindzierski W, Shihadeh A, Vanderhoek A, et al. ‘Herbal’ but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafes where they are served. Tob Control. 2015;24(3):290–7. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobacco-control-2013-051169

  • 22. Dawood OT, Rashan MAA, Hassali MA, Saleem F. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2016;8(2):146–51. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0975-7406.171738

  • 23. Arab Health. The shisha habit: a global epidemic [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 01]. Available from: https://www.arabhealthon-line.com/magazine/en/latest-issue/2018-issue-6/the-shisha-habit-global-epidemic.html

  • 24. Aniwada EC, Uleanya DN, Ossai EN, Nwobi EA, Anibueze M. Tobacco use: prevalence, pattern, and predictors, among those aged 15-49 years in Nigeria, a secondary data analysis. Tob Induc Dis. 2018;16:7. https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/82926

  • 25. Aanyu C, Ddamulira JB, Nyamurungi K, Ediau M, Bazeyo W. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Shisha smoking among youths in Kampala, Uganda. Tob Induc Dis. 2018;16(Suppl 1):A484. https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/84307

  • 26. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Anil S. Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(24):10841–6.

  • 27. Muzammil, Al Asmari DS, Al Rethaiaa AS, Al Mutari AS, Al Rashidi TH, Al Raheedi HA, et al. Prevalence and perception of shisha smoking among university students: a cross-sectional study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2019;9(3):275–81. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_407_18

  • 28. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Aghazedah S, Hoe VCW. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13(7):E726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070726

  • 29. Fauzi R, Areesantichai C. Knowledge toward health risk of shisha use among high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. J Health Res [Internet]. 2015[cited 2019 Jan 4];29(Suppl.2):S229–32. Available from: https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jhealthres/article/view/78052

  • 30. Rami K, Makvana BJ, Thakor NC. Knowledge, attitude and practices of hookah smoking among medical students in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional study. Int J Adv Med. 2015;2(4):397–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20151017

  • 31. Anjum Q, Ahmed F, Ashfaq T. Knowledge, attitude and perception of water pipe smoking (Shisha) among adolescents aged 14-19 years. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008;58(6):312–7.

  • 32. Mohammed FA, Kanmodi KK, Fagbule OF, Adesina MA, Njideka NJ, Sadiq HA. Shisha smokers’ desire to quit shisha smoking habit: fi ndings from a Nigerian pilot survey. Glob Psychiatr. 2019;2(1):1–5. https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0004

  • 33. Fagbule OF, Kanmodi KK, Aladelusi TO. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and attitudes towards tobacco ban: A pilot survey of secondary school students in Ibokun Town, Nigeria. Int J Child Adolesc Health. 2018;11(3):349–53.

  • 34. Adesina MA, Kanmodi KK, Fagbule OF, Ogunmuko T. Unfavorable family background is associated with smoking at youthful age. Int J Child Health Hum Dev. 2019;12(2). [Epub ahead of print].

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search