Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome as a Complication in Acute Spontaneous Canine Babesiosis

Oksana A. Dubova 1 , Diana V. Feshchenko 1 , Tetiana I. Bakhur 2 , Oksana A. Zghozinska 1 , Anatoliy A. Antipov 2 , Serhii V. Rublenko 2 , Volodymyr P. Goncharenko 2 , Raisa V. Shahanenko 2 , and Volodymyr S. Shahanenko 2
  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Veterinary-Sanitary Expertise and Zoohygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Staryi Blvd. 7, 10008, Zhytomyr, Ukraine
  • 2 Department of Parasitology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Soborna Sq. 8/1, 09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine

Abstract

The polyetiological syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is characterized by changes in patients’ hemostasis. The aim of the current research was to elucidate the main factors for the development of DIC syndrome during canine babesiosis, and to assess their correlation level. Dogs included in this study were of various breeds and sex, weighing 10-40 kg and aged 2-7 years. They were separated in two groups (n=50) according to their diagnosis to babesiosis. Oscillometry (blood pressure, pulse rate), vascular-platelet hemostasis, coagulogram, hematological, biochemical (fibrinogen, fibrin degradation product, soluble fibrin-monomer complex) and hemodynamic (circulating blood volume) assessment methods were used. The group of dogs positive on Babesia spp., had clear manifestation of DIC with 5-7% of the erythrocyte population being affected. DIC was manifested by a significant increase in soluble fibrin-monomer complex and fibrin degradation product (p<0.001), hypofibrinogenemia (p<0.001), thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), and an increase in indicators of spontaneous aggregation ability of platelets and red blood cells (p<0.001). Significant hemodynamic disorders were observed: a decrease in circulating blood volume, circulating erythrocytes volume (p<0.05), specific circulating blood volume and hematocrit value (p<0.001). The average blood pressure was reduced (p<0.001), and the Allgöwer’s shock index was increased 2 times (p<0.05). A shock of II degree (medium, subcompensated) was confirmed. Therefore, it can be concluded that acute spontaneous dogs’ babesiosis can be characterized by the occurrence of DIC in a consumption coagulopathy form, and shock of II degree. This condition renders the patients for emergency admission.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Solano-Gallego, L., Baneth, G. (2011). Babesiosis in dogs and cats-expanding parasitological and clinical spectra. Vet Parasitol. 18, 48-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.04.023

  • 2. Köster, L.S., Lobetti, R.G., Kelly, P. (2015). Canine babesiosis: a perspective on clinical complications, biomarkers, and treatment. Vet Med (Auckl). 6, 119-128. https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S60431

  • 3. Lack, J.B., Reichard, M.V, Van Den Bussche, R.A. (2012). Phylogeny and evolution of the Piroplasmida as inferred from 18S rRNA sequences. Int J Parasitol. 42(4): 353-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.02.005

  • 4. Schnittger, L., Rodriguez, A.E., Florin-Christensen, M., Morrison, D.A. (2012). Babesia: a world emerging. Infect Genet Evol. 12(8): 1788-1809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2012.07.004

  • 5. Irwin, P.J. (2010). Canine babesiosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 40(6): 1141-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.08.001

  • 6. Goddard, A., Leisewitz, A.L., Kjelgaard-Hansen, M., Kristensen, A.T., Schoeman, J.P. (2016). Excessive pro-inflammatory serum cytokine concentration in virulent canine babesiosis. PLoS One 11(3): e0150113. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150113

  • 7. Roopali, B., Roy, M., Roy, S. (2018). Clinico, haemato-biochemical changes and therapeutic management of canine babesiosis. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 7(8): 1384-1388. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.708.158

  • 8. Shah, S.A., Sood, N.K., Tumati, S.R. (2011). Haemato-biochemical changes in natural cases of canine babesiosis. Asian J of Anim Sci. 5(6): 387-392. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2011.387.392

  • 9. Levi, M. (2018). Disseminated intravascular coagulation. In: Hematology (7th Ed.) (p. 2064-2075). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-35762-3.00139-6

  • 10. Rafaj, R.B., Kuleš, J., Selanec, J., Vrkić, N., Zupančič, M., Trampuš Bakija, A., Matijatko, V., Crnoqaj, M., Mrljak, V. (2013). Markers of coagulation activation, endothelial stimulation, and inflammation in dogs with babesiosis. J Vet Intern Med. 27(5): 1172-1178. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.12146

  • 11. Rafaj, R.B., Matijatko, V., Kis, I., Kucer, N., Zivicnjak, T., Lemo, N., Zvorc, Z., Brkljacić, M., Mrljak, V. (2009). Alterations in some blood coagulation parameters in naturally occurring cases of canine babesiosis. Acta Vet Hung. 57(2): 295-304. https://doi.org/10.1556/avet.57.2009.2.10

  • 12. Yarets, Y.I., Novikova, I.A. (2014). Laboratory methods for evaluating the hemostasis system: educational method. Manual for students of the 4th year of the medical and diagnostic faculty of medical university. 72 p. Gomel: GomState Medical University. [in Russian]

  • 13. Eichenberger, R.M., Riond, B., Willi, B., Hofmann-Lehmann, R., Deplazes, P. (2016). Prognostic markers in acute babesia canis Infections. J Vet Intern Med. 30(1): 174-182. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.13822

  • 14. Kirtz, G., Leschnik, M., Hooijberg, E., Tichy, A., Leidinger, E. (2012). In-clinic laboratory diagnosis of canine babesiosis (Babesia canis canis) for veterinary practitioners in Central Europe. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Klientiere Heimtiere 40, 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1623628

  • 15. Shkatula, Y.V., Khyzhnia, Y.V., Hresko, I.Y., Badion, Yu, O. (2015). Medicine of emergency situations [Internet]. Sumy: Sumy State University, 102 p. http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/43318

  • 16. Soroka, N.M., Dubova, O.A., inventors; National Agrarian University, assignee. Method of lifelong diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome in dogs. Ukraine patent U 200503510. 2005 Sept 15.

  • 17. Schorn, M.N. (2010). Measurement of blood loss: review of the literature. J Midwifery Womens Health 55(1): 20-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.02.014

  • 18. Soroka, N.M., Dubova, O.A., Iaremenko, D.O., inventors; National Agrarian University, assignee. A method of determining the volume of circulating blood in dogs. Ukraine patent U 2200505490. 2005 Jun 8.

  • 19. Dubova, O., Dubovyi, A., Feshchenko, D. (2018). Indirect evaluation method and parameters of blood pressure and its indexes in dogs. Sci Mes LNU Vet Med Biotechnol. Series: Vet Sci. 20(88): 80-84. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet8814

  • 20. Nathan, H.L., Cottan, K., Hezelgrave, N.L., Seed, P.T., Briley A., Bewley S., Chappell, L.C., Shennan, A.H. (2016). Determination of normal ranges of shock index and other haemodynamic variables in immediate postpartum period: a cohort study. PloS One 11(12): e0168535. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168535

  • 21. Roshal, M. (2013). Prothrombin time. In: Transfusion medicine and hemostasis, (pp. 799-803). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397164-7.00124-5

  • 22. Roshal, M. (2013). Activated partial thromboplastin time. In: Transfusion medicine and hemostasis (2nd Ed.). Clinical and Laboratory Aspects (pp. 805-807). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397164-7.00125-7

  • 23. Wada, H., Hasegawa, K., Watanabe, M. (2017). DIC: an update on diagnosis and treatment. [Rinsho Ketsueki] The Japan J of Clinic Hematol. 58(5): 523-529.

  • 24. Dubova, O.A. (2016). Shock and DIC-syndrome as a pathogenetic axis of dogs babesiosis. Sci Mes LNU Vet Med Biotechnol. 18, 2(66): 70-73. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.15421/nvlvet6615

  • 25. Pacagnella, R.C., Souza, J.P., Durocher, J., Perel, P., Blum, J., Winikoff, B., Gülmezoglu, A.M. (2013). A systematic review of the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs. PloS One 8(3): e57594. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057594

  • 26. Quiñones, J., Uxer, J., Gogle, J., Scorza, W., Smulian, J.C. (2010). Clinical evaluation during postpartum hemorrhage. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 53, 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181cd5d36

  • 27. Guly, H.R., Bouamra, O., Spiers, M., Dark, P., Coats, T., Lecky, F.E. (2011). Vital signs and estimated blood loss in patients with major trauma: Testing the validity of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock. J Resuscitation. 82(5): 556-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.01.013

  • 28. Bhagavan, N.V., Ha, Ch.-E. (2011). Biochemistry of hemostasis. In: Essentials of medical biochemistry with clinical cases (p. 473-486). Elsevier Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-095461-2.00034-5

  • 29. Blanco, A, Blanco, G. (2017). Medical Biochemistry (pp. 781-789). London: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803550-4.00031-8

  • 30. Perez, P., Kimmoun, A., Blime, V., Levy, B. (2014). Increasing mean arterial pressure in cardiogenic shock secondary to myocardial infarction: effects on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation. Shock 41(4): 269-274. https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000099

  • 31. Leone, M., Asfar, P., Radumacher, P., Vincent, J.L., Martin, C. (2015). Optimizing mean arterial pressure in septic shock: a critical reappraisal of the literature. Crit Care. 19, 191. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-0794-z

  • 32. Vincent, J.L., De Backer, D. (2013). Circulatory shock. N Engl J Med. 369, 1726. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1208943

  • 33. Chamarthy, S. (2014). Normal coagulation and hemostasis. In: Pathobiology of human diseases. a dynamic encyclopedia of disease mechanisms (pp. 1544-1552). Elsevier.Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386456-7.07908-9

  • 34. Schetters, T.P.M., Kleuskens, J.A.G.M., Crommert, J., Leeuw, P.W.J., Finizio, A.L., Gorenflot, A. (2009). Systemic inflammatory responses in dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis; a haematological study. Vet Parasitol. 162(1): 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.02.012

  • 35. Holovakha, V.I., Piddubnyak, O.V., Bakhur, T.I., Vovkotrub, N.V., Antipov, A.A., Anfiorova, M.V., Gutyj, B.V., Slivinska, L.G., Kurdeko, O.P., Macynovich, A.O. (2018). Changes in erythrocytopoesis indices in dogs with babesiosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems 9(3): 379-383. https://doi.org/10.15421/021856

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search