Acute Phase Proteins – As Indicators of Claw Diseases in Dairy Cattle

Open access


The serum concentration of certain acute phase proteins significantly increases during various pathological conditions in cattle. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of claw disorders etiology on the concentrations of two major acute phase proteins in dairy cattle: haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid protein A (SAA). Fifty dairy cows with claw pathology were included. Fourteen clinically healthy heifers served as controls. The animals were subdivided in 5 groups according to the pathological findings on their claws: 1. Heel horn erosion (HE), 2. Acute laminitis (AL), 3. Sole ulcer (SU), 4. Digital dermatitis (DD) and 5. White line separation (WLS). Hp and SAA concentrations were measured in serum samples using commercial ELISA kits. Higher concentrations of both Hp and SAA were found in the AL and SU groups (p<0.01) compared to the HE, DD and WLS and control groups. Dairy cows in the DD group had higher (p<0.05) Hp and SAA concentrations than the HE and WLS groups and the controls. The serum values between the HE, WLS and the control group did not differ significantly. The presented results indicate that the claw diseases are associated with a systemic acute phase response. Hp and SAA could be used as valuable biomarkers for early detection of claw diseases in dairy cows.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Whay H.R. Main D.C.J. Green L.E. Webster A.J.F. (2002). Farmer perception of lameness prevalence. Proc. 12th International Symposium on Lameness in Ruminants (pp. 355 – 358) Orlando Florida

  • 2. Radeski M. Janevski A. Ilieski V. (2015). Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia. Mac Vet Rev. 38 (1): 43-51.

  • 3. Garbarino E. (2004). Efect of lameness on ovarian activity in post-partum holstein cows. Thesis University of Florida Gainesville Florida

  • 4. Weaver D.A. Jean S.G. Steiner A. (2005). Lameness. In: (2nd. ed.) Bovine surgery and lameness (pp. 198-258). Blackwell Publishing

  • 5. Green L.E. Hedges V.J. Schukken Y.H. Blowey R.W. Packington A.J. (2002). The impact of clinical lameness on the milk yield of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 58 2250-2256.

  • 6. Murray R.D. Downham D.Y. Clarkson M. J. Faull W.B. Hughes J.W. et al. (1996). Epidemiology of lameness in dairy cattle: Description and analysis of foot lesions. Vet Rec. 138 586–591. PMid:8799985

  • 7. Greenough P. R. Maccallum F. J. Weaver A.D. (1981). Lameness in cattle. (2nd ed.) Bristol: John Wright & Sons Ltd. PMCid:PMC327455

  • 8. Shearer J.K. Bray D.R. Uphrey J.E. Elliot J.B. (1996). Factors influencing the incidence of lameness in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Florida Dairy Conference. (pp. 40-51) Gainesville Florida USA

  • 9. Bergsten C. Hancock D.D. Gay J.M. Gay C.C. Fox L.K. (1998). Claw diseases: the most common cause of dairy lameness diagnosis frequencies and risk groups in a University herd. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Convention of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners 24-26 September (pp. 188-194) Spokane Washington USA

  • 10. Dinarello C.A. (1984). Interleukin-1 and the pathogenesis of the acute-phase response. N Engl J Med. 311 1413-1418. PMid:6208485

  • 11. Bauman H. Gauldie J. (1994). Thе acute phase response. Immunol Today. 15 74-80.

  • 12. Standyk A.W. Gauldie J. (1991). The acute phase protein response during parasitic infection. Parasitol Today. 7 7-12.

  • 13. Eckersall P.D. Conner J. G. (1988). Bovine and canine acute phase proteins. Vet Res Commun. 12 169-178. PMid:2460991

  • 14. Murata H. Shimada N. Yoshioka M. (2004). Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Vet J. 168 24-40.

  • 15. Gruys E. Van Edern M. Alsemgeest S.P.M. Kalsbeek H. C. Wensing T. (1993). Acute phase proteins values in blood of cattle as indicator of animals with pathological processes. Arhiv fur Lebensmittlehygene 44 107-111.

  • 16. Kushner I. (1982). The phenomenon of acute phase response. Ann NY Acad Sci. 389 39-48. PMid:7046585

  • 17. Cho J.G. (2002). Acute phase proteins in dairy cows with mastitis. Korean J Vet Sci. 25(4): 377-384.

  • 18. Hirvonen J. Pyöräla S. (1998). Acute-phase response in dairy cows with surgically-treated abdominal disorders. Vet J. 155 53–61.

  • 19. Horadagoda N.U. Knox K.M.G. Gibbs H.A. Reid S.W.J Horadagoda A.S.E. et al. (1999). Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. Vet Rec. 144(16): 437-441. PMid:10343375

  • 20. Thotova C. Nagy O. Seidel H. Paulikova I. Kovac G. (2011). The influence of claw diseases on the concentrations of some acute phase proteins and other variables of the protein profile in heifers. Acta Vet. 61 (2-3): 141-150.

  • 21. Uchida E. Katoh N. Takahashi K. (1993). Appearance of haptoglobin in serum from cows at parturition. J Vet Med Sci. 55 893-894. PMid:8286556

  • 22. Hirvonen J. (2000). Hirvonen’s thesis on acute phase response in dairy cattle.[Internet]. Academic dissertation Faculty of veterinary medicine University of Helsinki.

  • 23. Conner J.G. Eckersall P. D. Wiseman A. Aitchison T.C. Douglas T.A. (1998). Bovine acute phase response following turpentine injection. Res Vet Sci. 44 82-88.

  • 24. Kujala M. (2010). Laminitis – related lesions and lameness detection in dairy cattle in Finland. [Internet]. Academic dissertation Faculty of veterinary medicine University of Helsinki Finland

  • 25. Clarkson M. J. Faull B. Hughes J. W. Manson F.J. Merritt J.B. Murray J.E. et al. (1996). Incidence and prevalence of lameness in dairy cattle. Vet Rec. 138(23): 563-567. PMid:8795183

  • 26. Manske T. (2002). Claw lesions and lameness in Swedish dairy cattle: Prevalence risk factors effects of claw trimming and consequences for productivity. Academic dissertation Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Skara Sweeden

  • 27. Dembele I. Špinka M. Stehulova I. Pananma J. Firla P. (2006). Factors contributing to the incidence and prevalence of lameness on Czech dairy farms. Chez J of Animal Sci. 51(3): 102-109.

  • 28. Јawor P. Steiner S. Stefaniak T. Baumgartner W. Rzasa A. (2008). Determination of selected acute phase proteins during the treatment of limb diseases in dairy cow. Vet Med Czech. 53(4): 173-183.

  • 29. Ettema J.F. Østergaard S. (2006). Economic decision making on prevention and control of clinical lameness in Danish dairy herds. Livestock Science 102 92–106.

  • 30. Kossaibati M. A. Esslemont R. J. (1997). The cost of production diseases in dairy herds in England Vet. J. 154 41-51.

  • 31. Smith B.I. Kauffold J. Sherman L. (2010). Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders. Vet J. 186 162-165. PMid:19751983

  • 32. Nazifi S. Rezakhani A. Koohimoghadam M. Ansari-Lari M. Esmailnezhad Z. (2008). Evaluation of serum haptoglobin in clinically healthy cattle and cattle with inflammatory disease in Shiraz a tropical area in southern Iran. Bulg J Vet Med. 11(2): 95-101.

  • 33. Kennedy B.W. (1989). Introduction to linear models in animal breeding. University of Guelph. Canada

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.193
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.328

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 135 135 5
PDF Downloads 84 84 5