Importance of Wild Species Kept in Captivity as Reservoirs of Salmonella Serotypes for Human in Petting Exhibitions and Zoo in Iran with Focus on Antimicrobial Resistance

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Abstract

Salmonella spp. is the leading cause of zoonotic enteric diseases wich represents a public health concern worldwide. The incidence of zoo-associated salmonellosis is rather high due to the high prevalence and shedding of this bacterium from wild animals specially kept in stressful conditions. To determine the potential public health risk presented by zoo animals in Semnan, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium among wild animal species kept in the zoo and pet shops. Totally, 152 fecal samples from species in the zoo and pet shops were collected and Salmonella prevalence and identification was assessed via standard bacteriologic culture methods, serotyping, multiplex-PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Overall, 21% (32/152) of the samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella and serotyping showed 12.5% (19/32) Salmonella serovar Enteritidis and 8.5% (13/32) serovar Typhimurium, respectively. All the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to Chloramphenicole, Flurefenicole, Meropenem, Ceftizoxime, Imipenem and Ampicillin, while resistance was observed in the case of Nalidixic acid (78%) as the highest resistance, Streptomycin (28%), Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Furazolidone (each one 15%) and Lincospectin (9.3%). The high occurrence of multidrug resistance Salmonella in zoo and pet animals represents a potential threat to public health and requires strict surveillance and application of hygienic criteria.

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