Dystocia in Sheep and Goats: Outcome and Fertility Following Surgical and Non-Surgical Management

Open access

Abstract

Cesarean section is a life-saving surgical procedure usually undertaken in sheep and goats that fail to deliver vaginally (dystocia). Unfortunately, there are no recent review articles in literature that summarize the results of published case reports and clinical trials concerning indications, surgical approaches and procedures and outcomes following cesarean section in sheep and goats. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compile available data related to dystocia and cesarean section in small ruminants. Fortunately, the incidence of dystocia in small ruminants is considered to be low. It can be caused by either maternal or fetal factors. Maternal-related dystocia is most commonly because of failure of cervical dilation, narrow birth canal and uterine inertia. Those related to fetal causes are usually associated with fetal malposition/presentation, feto-pelvic disproportion/fetal oversize, and fetal malformation. Manual extraction of the fetus may be attempted in most cases, however, early surgical intervention by performing cesarean section ensures satisfactory outcome. Cesarean section is usually performed in lateral recumbency through left paralumbar fossa or left paralumbar fossa oblique celiotomy under local analgesia. The success rates and post-operative complications in sheep and goats are underreported; however, early surgical intervention using aseptic technique usually results in a satisfactory outcome for both the dam and newborn with acceptable prognosis for future breeding soundness.

References

  • 1. Brounts, S.H., Hawkins, J.F., Baird, A.N., Glickman, L.T. (2004). Outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing cesarean section because of dystocia: 110 cases (1981-2001). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224, 275-279. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.224.275 PMid:14736074

  • 2. Purohit, G.N. (2006). Dystocia in the sheep and goat. A review. Indian J. Sm. Rum. 12(1), 1-12.

  • 3. Sharma, A., Kumar, P., Singh, M., Vasishta, N. (2014). Retrospective analysis of dystocia in small ruminants. Intas Polivet. 15, 287-289.

  • 4. Bhattacharyya, H.K., Fazili, M.R., Bhat, F.A., Buchoo, B.A. (2015). Prevalence and dystocia of sheep and goats: A study of 70 cases (2004-2011). J. Adv. Vet. Res. 5, 14-20.

  • 5. Noakes, D.E., Parkinson, T.J., England, G.C.W. (2009). Noakes’s’ veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. London, Saunders.

  • 6. Fubini, S.L., Ducharme, N.G. (2004). Farm animal surgery. Missouri, Saunders.

  • 7. Menzies PI, Bailey D (1997). Current therapy in large animal theriogenology. Philadelphia, Saunders.

  • 8. Ali, A.M.H. (2011). Causes and management of dystocia in small ruminants in Saudi Arabia. J. Agri. Vet. Sci. 4(2), 95-108.

  • 9. Kumar, V., Talekar, S.H., Ahmad, R.A., Mathew, D.D., Zama, M.M.S. (2013). Delayed cases of dystocia in small ruminants - etiology and surgical management. Indian J. Vet. Sci. 1, 47-54.

  • 10. Hussain, S.O., Zaid, N.W. (2010). Dystocia in goats, causes and treatment. AL-Qadisiya J. Vet. Med. Sci. 9.

  • 11. Fubini, S., Heath, A.M., Pugh, D.G. (2002). Sheep and goat medicine. Philadelphia, Saunders. PMCid:PMC2173981

  • 12. Hanie, E.A.A. (2006). Large Animal Clinical Procedures for Veterinary Technicians. Elsevier, Mosby, Missouri.

  • 13. Wu, W.X., Xiao, Hong. M,A., Coksaygan, T., Chakrabarty, K., Collins, K.V., Rose, J., Nathanielsz, P.W. (2004). Prostaglandin mediates premature delivery in pregnant sheep induced by estradiol at 121 days of gestational age. Endocrinol. 45, 1444-1452. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1142 PMid:14645114

  • 14. Muir, W.W., Hubbell, J., Skarda, R.T., Swanson, C.R., Mason, D.M. (2000). Handbook of veterinary anesthesia. Elsevier, Mosby, Missouri.

  • 15. Leontides, L., Fthenakis, G.C., Amiridis, G.S. (2000). A matched case-control study of factors associated with retention of fetal membrane in dairy ewes in southern Greece. Prev. Vet. Med. 44, 113-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(99)00115-4

  • 16. Kenneth, D.N. (2008). Bovine cesarean section in the field. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Food. Anim. Pract. 24, 273-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2008.02.009 PMid:18471569

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.161
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.368

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 164 164 120
PDF Downloads 14 14 11