Dalmatian turkey is a slow growing breed kept in free range systems. It is a type of “old fashioned poultry” whose meat is present on the market and accepted by consumers. However, no information about its meat quality and fatty acid profile is available. The chemical composition of the meat was influenced by gender and meat type and these differences could be important from the consumer’s point of view. Fatty acid composition was characterized by the predominance of n6 fatty acids, especially C18:2n6 and a high n6/n3 ratio. Increased time of storage strongly reduced the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) and increased atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices (AI and TI) in thigh tissue. The content of beneficial n3 PUFA was influenced by meat type, with lower values of C18:3n3 and higher values of LC PUFA in the breast compared to the thighs. The potential intake of LC PUFA of comercial turkey in the human diet was lower in comparison to poultry fed with complete feed mixtures. An interesting fact was the higher DHA values in comparison with DPA values in breast tissue, which is characteristic of old poultry breeds. The Dalmatian turkey is a highly valued traditional product and an important archaic breed for gene preservation and biodiversity. Nevertheless, Dalmatian turkey meat could be even further improved by minimal dietary manipulation to become a product with additional health promoting effects.
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