Cardiotoxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Corn Silk in Rats

Open access

Abstract

In the ear of corn there are silky strands which run its length and these strands are known as corn silks. Folk remedies show that the corn silks have been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for many years and as herbal tea in other world nations for the amelioration of urinary tract infection. The extract is being assessed for safety in this study using histopathological changes, as well as an electrocardiogram (ECG). Graded doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of aqueous CS extract were administered to rats for seven days. The fourth group which served as control received 3 ml/kg dose of distilled water. On the eighth day, ECG was evaluated in ketamine/xylazine-induced anaesthesia in rats to determine changes in the heart rate, P-wave duration, P-R interval, R-amplitude, QRS duration, QT interval and QTc. Hearts from the experimental animals were collected for histopathological changes. The results showed that there was a significant change in the heart rate (groups B and C), P-wave duration (group D), QT interval (groups B, C and D) and QTc (groups B, C and D) when compared to the control group. Histology also indicated that sections of the heart showed fatty infiltration of inflamed heart and areas of moderate inflammation of the atrium and ventricle. It could therefore be concluded from this study that though folklore indicated that corn silk (CS) is of high medicinal value, one must be careful in using this product as medicinal agent especially in patients with compromised heart conditions.

1. Rao, NK., Nammi, S. (2006). Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 6, 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-6-17 PMid:16677399 PMCid:PMC1540439

2. Aloulou, A., Hamden, K., Elloumi, D., Ali, MB., Hargafi, K., Jaouadi, B., Ayadi, F., Elfeki, A., Ammar, E. (2012). Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 12, 63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-63 PMid:22591682 PMCid:PMC3403982

3. Bhagwat, DA., Killedar, SG., Adnaik, RS. (2008). Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens. Intl J Green Pharm. 2, 126-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-8258.41188

4. Saha, S., Verma, RJ. (2012). Efficacy study of Dolichos biflorus in the management of nephrotoxicity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. S1471-S1476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60440-7

5. Guo, J., Liu, T., Han, L., Liu, Y. (2009). The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Nutr Met. 6, 47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-6-47 PMid:19930631 PMCid:PMC2785813

6. Hasanudin, K., Hashim, P., Mustafa, S. (2012). Corn silk (Stigma maydis) in healthcare: a phytochemical and pharmacological review. Molecules 17, 9697-9715. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17089697 PMid:22890173

7. Ebrahimzadeh, MA., Pourmorad, F., Hafezi, S. (2008). Antioxidant activities of Iranian corn silk. Turk J Biol. 32, 43-49.

8. Sawadogo, WR., Boly, M., Lompo, M., Some, N. (2006). Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Dicliptera verticillata. Intl J Pharmacol. 2, 435-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2006.435.438

9. Maksimović, Z., Malenčić, Đ., Kovačević, N. (2005). Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresource Technol. 96, 873–877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.006 PMid:15627557

10. Bastien, JW. (1982). Pharmacopeia of qollahuayaandeans. J Ethnopharmacol. 8, 97–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(83)90091-0

11. Caceres, A., Giron, LM., Martinez, AM. (1987). Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatment of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol. 19, 233–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(87)90001-8

12. Dat, DD., Ham, NN., Khac, DH., Lam, NT., Son, PT., Dau, NV., Grabe, M., Johansson, R., Lindgren, G., Stjernstrom, NE. (1992). Studies on the individual and combined diuretics effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus). J Ethnopharmacol. 36, 225–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(92)90048-V

13. Grases, F., March, JG., Ramis, M., Costa-Bauzá, A. (1993). The influence of Zea mays on urinary risk factors for kidney stones in rats. Phytother Res. 7, 146–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2650070210

14. Yesilada, E., Honda, G., Sevik, E., Tabata, M., Fujita, T., Tanaka, T., Takeda, Y., Takaishi, Y. Traditional medicine in Turkey. V. (1995). Folk medicine in the inner Taurus Mountains. J Ethnopharmacol. 46, 133–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01241-5

15. Hu, QL., Zhang, LJ., Li, YN., Ding, YJ., Li, FL. (2010). Purification and anti-fatigue activity of flavonoids from corn silk. Intl J Phys Sci. 5, 321–326.

16. Steenkamp, V. (2003). Phytomedicines for the prostate. Fitoterapia 74, 545–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00155-2

17. Velazquez, DVO., Xavier, HS., Batista, JEM., Castro-Chaves, CD. (2005). Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats. Phytomed. 12, 363–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2003.12.010 PMid:15957371

18. Ebrahimzadeh, MA., Mahmoudi, M., Ahangar, N., Ehteshami, S., Ansaroudi, F., Nabavi, SF., Nabavi, SM. (2009). Antidepressant activity of corn silk. Pharmacologyonline 3, 647–652.

19. Maksimovic, ZA., Kovačević, N. (2003). Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Fitoterapia 74, 144–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00311-8

20. Bai, H., Hai, C., Xi, M., Liang, X., Liu, R. (2010). Protective effect of maize silks (Maydis stigma). Ethanol extract on radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 65, 271–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0172-6 PMid:20526679

21. Sepehri, G., Derakhshanfar, A., Zade, FY. (2011). Protective effects of corn silk extract administration on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Comp Clin Pathol. 20, 89–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00580-009-0943-3

22. Ambike, AA., Khandelwal, KR., Bodhankar, SL., Kadam, SS. (2000). Toxicity study and diuretic activity of corn silk, Zea mays L. Indian J Pharmacol. 32, 132-175.

23. Oosting, J., Struijker, BH., Janssen BJ. (1997). Autonomic control of ultradian and circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 15, 401–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004872-199715040-00011 PMid:9211175

24. Carvalho, MJ., van Den Meiracker, AH., Boomsma, F., Lima, M., Freitas, J., Veld, AJ., Falcao, DF. (2000). Diurnal blood pressure variation in progressive autonomic failure. Hypertens. 35, 892–897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.35.4.892

25. Custer, JW., Rau, RE. eds. (2008). Johns Hopkins: The Harriet Lane Handbook. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc.

26. Fauci, AS., Braunwald, E., Kasper, DL., Hauser, SL., Longo, DL., Jameson, JL., Loscalzo J. (2008). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Edition. Amazon.com, Inc.

27. Moyer, VA. (2012). Screening for coronary heart disease with electrocardiography: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals Intern Med. 157 (7): 512–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-157-7-201210020-00514

28. Padeletti, L., Santini, M., Boriani, G., Botto, G., Ricci, R., Spampinato, A. (2007). Duration of P-wave is associated with atrial fibrillation hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation and paced for bradycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 30, 961–969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8159.2007.00793.x PMid:17669078

29. Lodish, H., Berk, A., Kaiser, C., Krieger, M., Bretscher, A., Ploegh, H., Amon, A. (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman and Company. pp. 1021–1022, 1025, 1045.

30. Rang, HP. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Page 149. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.

31. Callies, C., Fels, J., Liashkovich, I., Kliche, K., Jeggle, P., Kusche-Vihrog, K., Oberleithner, H. (2011). Membrane potential depolarization decreases the stiffness of vascular endothelial cells. J Cell Sci. 124, 1936-1942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.084657 PMid:21558418

32. Marieb, EN., Hoehn, K. (2014). Human anatomy and physiology. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education Inc.

33. Gear, K., Marcus, F. (2003). Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Circ. 107: e31-e33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000053943.38763.70 PMid:12569915

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.32

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.195
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.387

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 138 138 26
PDF Downloads 57 57 15