Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Leishmania-Seropositive Dogs

Open access

Abstract

Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is vector-born severe enzootic disease in dogs. It includes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, but the most characteristic are alterations in the hematopoetic system and renal failure. Also, infected animals could be asymptomatic, so the manifestation of L. infantum infection depends on many factors, including host’s immunological status. The aim of this survey was to find parameters related with hematopoetic and renal failure (hematology, biochemical parameters - urea, creatinine, serum proteins) in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs seropositive for canine leishmaniosis. Within the hematological parameters, we found significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in the erythrogram and platelet count, but not in the leukogram. Significant differences between the two groups were found also for urea, creatinine, serum albumin and globulin, but not in serum total protein and A/G ratio. These findings indicate individual variability of the host’s response to infection with L. infantum.

1. Solano-Gallego, L., Koutinas, A., Miró, G., Cardoso, L., Pennisi, M.G., Ferrer, L., Bourdeau, P., Oliva, G., Baneth, G. (2009). Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis. Veterinary Parasitology 165, 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.05.022 PMid:19559536

2. Gonçalves, R., Vieira, E.R., Melo, M.N, Gollob, K.J., Mosser, D.M, Tafuri, W.L. (2005). A sensitive flow cytometric methodology for studying the binding of L. chagasi to canine peritoneal macrophages. BMC Infectious Diseases, 5, 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-5-39 PMid:15913461 PMCid:PMC1166554

3. Dias, E.L., Batista, Z.S., Guerra, R.M.S.N.C., Calabrese, K.S., Lima, T.B., Abreu-Silva, A.L. (2008). Canine Visceral Leishmaniosis (CVL): Seroprevalence, clinical, hematological and biochemical findings of dogs naturally infected in an endemic area of São José de Ribamar Municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Ciência animal brasileira, 9(3): 740-745.

4. Bates, P.A. (2007). Transmission of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies. Int J Parasitol. 37 (10-3): 1097-1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2007.04.003 PMid:17517415 PMCid:PMC2675784

5. Dostálová, A, Volf, P. (2012). Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview. Parasites & Vectors 5, 276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-276 PMid:23206339 PMCid:PMC3533922

6. Gramiccia, M., Gradoni, L. (2005). The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control. Int J Parasitol. 35, 1169-1180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.07.001 PMid:16162348

7. Sakamoto, K.P., de Melo, G.D., Machado, G.F. (2013). T and B lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: Leishmania chagasi, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. BMC Research Notes 6, 226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-6-226 PMid:23758819 PMCid:PMC3701587

8. Sanches, F.P., Tomokane, T.Y, Da Matta, V.L.R., Marcondes, M., Corbett, C.E.P., Laurenti, M.D. (2014). Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages inversely correlates with parasitism of lymphoid tissues in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis. Acta Vet. Scand. 56, 57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-014-0057-z PMid:25195062 PMCid:PMC4172852

9. Verçosa, B.L.A., Lemos, C.M., Mendonça, I.L., Silva, S.M.M.S., de Carvalho, S.M., Goto, H., Costa, F.A.L. (2008). Transmission potential, skin inflammatory response, and parasitism of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs with visceral leishmaniosis. BMC Veterinary Research 4, 45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-4-45 PMid:18990238 PMCid:PMC2613136

10. López-Peña, M., Alemañ, N., Muñoz, F., Fondevila, D., Suárez, M.L., Goicoa, A., Nieto, J.M. (2009). Visceral leishmaniosis with cardiac involvement in a dog: a case report. Acta Vet. Scand., 51, 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-51-20 PMid:19405946 PMCid:PMC2679027

11. Manna, L., Paciello, O., Della Morte, R., Gravino, A.E. (2012). Detection of Leishmania parasites in the testis of a dog affected by orchitis: case report. Parasit Vectors 5, 216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-216 PMid:23021706 PMCid:PMC3481428

12. McConkey, S.E., López, A., Shaw, D., Calder, J. (2002). Leishmanial polyarthritis in a dog. Can Vet J., 43 (8): 607-609. PMid:12170836 PMCid:PMC339396

13. Melo, F.A., Moura, E.P., Ribeiro, R.R, Alves, C.F., Caliari, M.V., Tafuri, W.L., Calabrese, K.S., Tafuri, W.L. (2009). Hepatic extracellular matrix alterations in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Int. J. Exp. Path. 90 (5): 538-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2613.2009.00681.x PMid:19765108 PMCid:PMC2768152

14. Silva, L.C., Castro, R.S, Figueiredo, M.M., Michalick, M.S.M., Tafuri, W.L., Tafuri, W.L. (2013). Canine visceral leishmaniosis as a systemic fibrotic disease. Int. J. Exp. Path. 94 (2): 133-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iep.12010 PMid:23419132 PMCid:PMC3607142

15. Figueiredo, M.M., Deoti, B., Amorim, I.F., Pinto, A.J.W., Moraes, A., Carvalho, C.S., da Silva, S.M., de Assis, A.C. B., de Faria, A.M.C., Tafuri, W.L. (2014). Expression of regulatory T cells in jejunum, colon, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Infect Immun., 82 (9): 3704-3712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01862-14 PMid:24935975 PMCid:PMC4187817

16. Pinto, A.J.W., Figueiredo, M.M., Silva, F.L., Martins, T., Michalick, M.S.M., Tafuri, W.L., Tafuri, W.L. (2011). Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Acta Vet Scand, 53, 67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-53-67 PMid:22166041 PMCid:PMC3269393

17. Viegas, C., Requicha, J., Albuquerque, C., Sargo T., Machado J., Dias I., Pires, M.A., Campino, L., Cardoso, L. (2012). Tongue nodules in canine leishmaniosis - a case report. Parasit Vectors 5, 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-120 PMid:22704596 PMCid:PMC3407507

18. Bogdan, C., Röllinghoff, M. (1998). The immune response to Leishmania: mechanisms of parasite control and evasion. Int J Parasitol, 28 (1): 121-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00169-0

19. Loría-Cervera, E.N., Andrade-Narváez, F.J. (2014). Animal Models for the Study of Leishmaniosis Immunology. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 56 (1): 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000100001 PMid:24553602 PMCid:PMC4085833

20. Pinelli, E., Killick-Kendrick, R., Wagenaar, J., Bernadina, W., del Real, G., Ruitenberg, J. (1994). Cellular and humoral immune responses in dogs experimentally and naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Infect Immun., 62 (1): 229-235. PMid:8262632 PMCid:PMC186091

21. Pinelli, E., Rutten, V.P.M.G., Bruysters, M., Moore, P.F., Ruitenberg, E.J. (1999). Compensation for decreased expression of B7 molecules on Leishmania infantuminfected canine macrophages results in restoration of parasite-specific T-cell proliferation and gamma interferon production. Infect Immun., 67 (1): 237-243. PMid:9864221 PMCid:PMC96302

22. do Nascimento, P.R.P., Martins, D.R.A., Monteiro, G.R.G., Queiroz, P.V., Freire-Neto, F.P., Queiroz, J.W., Lima, Á.L.M., Jeronimo, S.M.B. (2013). Association of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) with Leishmania burden in canine visceral leishmaniosis. PLoS One 8(10): e73873. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073873

23. Souza, C.C., Barreto, T.O., da Silva, S.M., Pinto, A.W. J., Figueiredo, M.M., Rocha, O.G.F., Cangussú, S.D., Tafuri, W.L. (2014). A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniosis. Int. J. Exp. Path., 95 (4): 260-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iep.12080 PMid:24766461 PMCid:PMC4170968

24. Coura-Vital, W., Marques, M.J., Giunchetti, R.C., Teixeira-Carvalho, A., Moreira, N.D., Vitoriano-Souza, J., Vieira, P.M., Carneiro, C.M., Corrêa-Oliveira, R., Martins-Filho, O.A., Carneiro, M., Reis, A.B. (2011). Humoral and cellular immune responses in dogs with inapparent natural Leishmania infantum infection. Vet J. 190 (2), e43-e47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.04.005 PMid:21596598

25. Nicolato, R.deC., de Abreu, R.T., Roatt, B.M., Aguiar-Soares, R.D.O., Reis, L.E.S., Carvalho, M.G., Carneiro, C.M., Giunchetti, R.C., Bouillet, L.E.M., Lemos, D.S, Coura-Vital, W., Reis, A.B. (2013). Clinical forms of canine visceral leishmaniosis in naturally leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes. PLoS One. 8 (12): e82947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082947

26. Kargin Kiral, F., Seyrek, K., Pasa, S., Ertabaklar, H., Ünsal, C. (2004). Some haematological, biochemical and electrophoretic findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis. Revue Méd. Vét., 155 (4): 226-229.

27. Honse, C.O., Figueiredo, F.B., de Alencar, N.X., Madeira, M.deF., Gremião, I.D.F, Schubach, T.M.P. (2013). Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi from Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. BMC Veterinary Research 9, 43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-9-43 PMid:23497531 PMCid:PMC3599858

28. Costa, F.A.L., Prianti, M.G., Silva, T.C., Silva, S.M.M.S., Guerra, J.L., Goto, H. (2010). T cells,tadhesion molecules and modulation of apoptosis in visceral leishmaniosis glomerulonephritis. BMC Infect Dis., 10, 112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-112

29. Pateraki, E., Portocala, R., Labrousse, H., Guesdon, J.-L. (1983). Antiactin and antitubulin antibodies in canine visceral leishmaniosis. Infect Immun. 42 (2): 496-500. PMid:6642639 PMCid:PMC264456

30. Menn, B., Lorentz, S., Naucke, T.J. (2010). Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany. Parasit Vectors, 3, 34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-34 PMid:20377872 PMCid:PMC2857866

31. Momo, C., Jacintho, A.P.P., Moreira, P.R.R., Munari, D.P., Machado, G.F., Vasconcelos, R.deO. (2014). Morphological changes in the bone marrow of the dogs with visceral leishmaniosis. Vet Med Int., 150582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/150582 PMid:24744957 PMCid:PMC3972870

32. Živičnjak, T., Martinković, F., Marinculić, A., Mrljak, V., Kučer, N., Matijatko, V., Mihaljević, Ž., Barić-Rafaj, R. (2005). A seroepidemiologic survey of canine visceral leishmaniosis among apparently healthy dogs in Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 131 (1-2): 35-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.04.036 PMid:15946800

33. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) (2008). Manual of standards diagnostic tests and vaccines, Part 2, Section 2.2, Chapter 2.2.11.: Leishmaniosis.

34. Solano-Gallego, L., Miró, G., Koutinas, A., Cardoso, L., Pennisi, M.G., Ferrer, L., Bourdeau, P., Oliva, G., Baneth, G. (2011). LeishVet guidelines for the practical management of canine leishmaniosis. Parasites & Vectors 4, 86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-86 PMid:21599936 PMCid:PMC3125381

35. Trópia de Abreu, R., Carvalho, M.dG., Carneiro, C.M., Giunchetti, R.C., Teixeira-Carvalho, A., Martins-Filho, O.A., Coura-Vital, W., Corrêa-Oliveira, R., Reis, A.B. (2011). Influence of clinical status and parasite load on erythropoiesis and leucopoiesis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. PLoS ONE 6 (5): e18873. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018873

36. De Tommasi, A.S., Otranto, D., Furlanello, T., Tasca, S., Cantacessi, C., Breitschwerdt, E.B., Stanneck, D., Dantas-Torres, F., Baneth, G., Capelli, G., de Caprariis, D. (2014). Evaluation of blood and bone marrow in selected canine vector-borne diseases. Parasit Vectors. 7, 534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0534-2 PMid:25441458 PMCid:PMC4261574

37. Ramos-Vara, J.A., Briones, V., Segalés, J., Vilafranca, M., Sordé, A., Miller, M.A. (1994). Concurrent infection with Streptococcus equisimilis and Leishmania in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest., 6 (3): 371-375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063879400600317

38. Mekuzas, Y., Gradoni, L., Oliva, G., Foglia Manzillo, V., Baneth, G. (2009). Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum co-infection: a 3-year longitudinal study in naturally exposed dogs. Clin Microbiol Infect., 15 (Suppl. 2): 30-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02150.x PMid:19416288

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.32

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.195
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.387

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 82 82 17
PDF Downloads 24 24 1