The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012) analyses of the sow productivity data in small (<200 sows, n=4) and large (200-1000 sows, n=5) commercial pig farms. The data was statistically evaluated and compared with the known literature. Sows productivity was greater on the small farms compared to the large ones. The small farms had larger litter per sow (PBL), more pigs born alive (PBA), higher weaning weight (WW) and more pigs weaned per sow per litter (PWSL) than the large ones (p<0.001). Small farms also had greater farrowing rate (FR) (p<0.01). Higher replacement rate (RR), lower average parity (AP), greater number of litters per sow per year (LSY) and higher sow death rate (SDR) were observed in large farms (p<0.001). The large farms also had less non-productive days (NPD) than the small farms (p<0.001). Different intensity of correlations also were observed for several productive parameters among the farm groups. The data obtained in this study show that sow productivity on Macedonian pig farms is lower than in EU countries. Small herds are more efficient than the large herds. Despite all limitations, our study provides information for veterinarians regarding reproductive parameters of sows and their interrelationships on Macedonian pig farms. Further investigation should be made in order to identify whether specific management factors have effect on the productivity of the breeding herd.
1. Ate, I.U., Oyedipe, E.O. (2011). Sow reproductive performance in institutional herds in Benue State Nigeria. J. Reprod. & Infertility 2 (2): 24-31.
2. Almond, G.W., William L. F., Batista, L., D’Allaire, S. (2006). Diseases of the reproductive system. In Straw, B.E., Zimmerman J. J., D’Allaire, S., Taylor, D.J. (Eds), Diseases of swine 9th ed. (pp.113-148). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
3. Van der Leek, M.L., Becker, H.N. (1993). Reproductive management problems in swine. Current Therapy 3. In Howard, J. L. (ed), Food Animal Practice. (pp: 805-809). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
4. Koketsu, J. (2002). Reproductive productivity measurements in japanese swine breeding herds. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64 (3): 195-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.64.195 PMid:11999436
5. King, V.L., Koketsu,Y., Reeves,D., Xue, J., Dial, G.D. (1998). Management factors associated with swine breeding-herd productivity in the United States. Prev. Vet. Med. 35: 255-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(98)00068-3
6. Knox, R.V., Rodriguez-Zas, S.L., Sloter, N.L., McNamara, K.A., Gall, T.J., Levis, D.G., Safranski, T. J., Singleton, W. L. (2013). An analysis of survey data by size of the breeding herd for the reproductive management practices of North American sow farms. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 433-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5189PMid:23097401
7. Cutler, R. S., Fahy, V. A., Cronin, G. M., Murray, S.E. (2006). Preweaning mortality. In: Straw, B.E., Zimmerman J. J., D’Allaire, S., Taylor, D.J (Eds). Diseases of swine 9th ed. (pp. 993-1110). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
8. Koketsu, Y. (2000). Retrospective analysis of trends and production factors associated with sow mortality on swine-breeding farms in USA. Prev. Vet. Med. 56: 249-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00153-7
9. Wilson, M. R., Friendship, R. M., McMillan, I., Hacker, R. R., Piper, R., Swaminathan, S. (1986). A survey of productivity and its component interrelationships in Canadian swine herds. J. Anim. Sci. 62: 576-582.
10. Koketsu, Y., Takahashi, H., Akachi, K. (1999). Longevity, lifetime pig production and productivity, and age at first conception in a cohort of gilts observed over six years on commercial farms. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 61: 1001-1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.61.1001 PMid:10535505
11. Dors, A., Czyżewska, E., Pomorska-Mól1, M., Kołacz, R. Pejsak, Z. (2013). Effect of various husbandry conditions on the production parameters of swine herds in Poland. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 16 (4): 707-713. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/pjvs-2013-0100 PMid:24597306
12. Stein, T. E., Duffy, S. J., Wickstrom, S. (1990). Differences in production values between high- and low-productivity swine breeding herds. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 3972-3979. PMid:2286540
13. Koketsu, Y. (2000). Productivity characteristic of high-performing commercial swine breeding farms. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216: 376-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.216.376 PMid:10668537
14. Petrovska, M. (2011). Efficiency of pig farm production in the Republic of Macedonia. Master’s thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala.
15. Deen J, Dee S., Morrison, R. B., Radostis, O. M. (2001). Health and production management in swine herds. Radostis, O. M. (Ed). In Herd health food animal production medicine 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.
16. BPEX (2012). Pig cost of production in selected countries. Agriculture and horticulture development board. Stoneleigh Park, Kenilworth.
17. D’Allaire, S., Drolet, R. (2006). Longevity in breeding animals. In: Straw, B.E., Zimmerman J. J., D’Allaire, S., Taylor, D.J (Eds). Diseases of swine 9th ed. (pp. 993-1110). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
18. Moeller, S. J., Goodwin, R. N., Johnson, R. K., Mabry, J. W., Baas, T. J., Robison, O. W. (2004). The national pork producers council maternal line national genetic evaluation program: A comparison of six maternal genetic lines for female productivity measures over four parities. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 41-53. PMid:14753347
19. Christensen, G., Vraa-Andersen, L., Mousing, J. (1995). Causes of mortality among sows in Danish pig herds. Vet. Rec. 137: 395-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.137.16.395 PMid:8545936