1 Department of Internal Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences Pl. Grunwaldzki 47, 50-366 Wrocław, Poland
2 Department of Internal Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences Pl. Grunwaldzki 47, 50-366 Wrocław, Poland Phone: +48501272377
Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dust exposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Davis E. Rush B.R. (2002). Equine recurrent airway obstruction: pathogenesis diagnosis and patient management. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18: 453-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0739(02)00026-3 PMid:12516928
2. Halliwell R.E. McGorum B.C. Irving P. Dixon P.M. (1993). Local and systemic antibody production in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 38: 201-215. PMid: 8291200
3. Bureau F. Bonizzi G. Kirschvink N. (2000). Correlation between nuclear factor-kB activity in bronchial brushing samples and lung dysfunction in an animal model of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161: 1314-1321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.161.4.9907010 PMid:10764329
4. Lavoie J.P. Maghni K. Desnoyers M. Taha R. Martin J.G. Hamid Q.A. (2001). Neutrophilic airway inflammation in horses with heaves is characterized by a Th2-type cytokine profile. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 164: 1410-1413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.164.8.2012091 PMid:11704587
5. Léguillette R. (2003). Recurrent airway obstructionheaves. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1: 63-86. PMid:12747662
6. Fernandez N.J. Hecker K.G. Gilroy C.V. Warren A.L. Léguillette R. (2013). Reliability of 400-cell and 5-field leukocyte differential counts for equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Vet Clin Pathol 1: 92-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12013 PMid:23289790
7. Dixon P.M. Railton D.I. McGorum BC. (1995). Equine pulmonary disease: a case control study of 300 referred cases: part 3. Ancillary diagnostics findings. Equine Vet J 27: 428-435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1995.tb04423.x PMid:8565939
8. Leclere M. Lavoie-Lamoureux A. Lavoie J.P. (2011). Heaves an asthma-like disease of horses. Respirology 7: 1027-1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.02033.x PMid:21824219
9. Thomson J.R. McPherson E.A. (1983). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the horse. Part 2: Therapy. Equine Vet J 15: 207-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1983.tb01766.x PMid:6411459
10. Thomson J.R. McPherson E.A. (1984). Effects of environmental control on pulmonary function of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Equine Vet J 16: 35-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1984.tb01845.x PMid:6714203
11. Woods P.S. Robinson N.E. Swanson M.C. Reed C.E. Broadstone R.V. Derksen F.J. (1993). Airborne dust and aeroallergen concentration in a horse stable under two different management systems. Equine Vet J 25: 208-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02945.x PMid:8508749
12. McGorum B.C. Dixon P.M. Halliwell R.E.W. (1993). Response of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inhalation challenge with mould antigens. Equine Vet J 25: 261-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02960.x PMid:8354208
13. Jackson C.A. Berney C. Jefcoat A.M. Robinson N.E. (2000). Environment and prednisone interactions in the treatment of recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Equine Vet J 5: 432-438.
14. Lavoie J.P. (2001). Update on equine therapeutics: inhalation therapy for equine heaves. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 23: 475-477.
15. Robinson N.E. Jackson C. Jefcoat A. Berney C. Peroni D. Derksen F.J. (2002). Efficacy of three corticosteroids for the treatment of recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Equine Vet J 34: 17-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2746/042516402776181105 PMid:11817547
16. Robinson N.E. Berney C. Eberhart S. deFeijter- Rupp H.L. Jefcoat A.M. Cornelisse C.J. Gerber V.M. Derksen F.J. (2003). Coughing mucus accumulation airway obstruction and airway inflammation in control horses and horses affected with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 64: 550-557. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2003.64.550 PMid:12755293
17. Tilley P. Sales Luis J.P. Branco Ferreira M. (2012). Correlation and discriminant analysis between clinical endoscopic thoracic X-ray and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology scores for staging horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Res Vet Sci 93:1006-1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.10.024 PMid:22136797