The article analyses the variations in carbon dioxide emission factor depending on parameters characterising biomass and RDF (refuse-derived fuel). The influence of moisture, ash content, heat of combustion, carbon and nitrogen content on the amount of emission factors has been reviewed, by determining their average values. The options for the improvement of the fuel to result in reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide have been analysed. Systematic measurements of biomass parameters have been performed, by determining their average values, seasonal limits of variations in these parameters and their mutual relations. Typical average values of RDF parameters and limits of variations have been determined.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Demirbas A. (2004). Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 30(2) 219–230.
2. Koppmann R. Von Czapiewski K. & Reid J.S. (2005). A review of biomass burning emissions part I: gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide methane volatile organic compounds and nitrogen containing compounds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5 10455–10516.
3. Health Inspection (in Latvian). (n.d.) Available at http://www.vi.gov.lv/lv/vides-veseliba/gaiss/ara/gaisa-suspendeto-cieto-dalinu-ietekme-uz-veselibu [Accessed: 21.01.2014].
4. Institute of Forest and Wood Products Research and Development. (2012). Study – Monitoring of the use of wood biomass in energy recovery (in Latvian). Jelgava.
5. Zhang X. Chen Q. Bradford R. Sharifi V. & Swithenbank J. (2010). Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of wood combustion in a moving grate boiler. Fuel Process. Technol. 91(11) 1491–1499.
6. Nussbaumer T. (2003). Combustion and co-combustion of biomass: Fundamentals technologies primary measures for emission reduction. Energy & Fuels17(6) 1510–1521.
7. Zandeckis A. & Blumberga D. (2010). Methods of nitrogen oxide reduction in pellet boilers. Sci. J. Riga Tech. Univ. 4 123–129.
8. European Committee for Standardization. (2011). Solid recovered fuels –Specifications and classes CEN/TS15359:2011 European Committee for Standardisation.
9. Iacovidou E. Hahladakis J. Deans T. Velis C. & Purnell P. (2017) Technical properties of biomass and solid recovered fuel (SRF) co-fired with coal: Impact on multi-dimensional resource recovery value. Waste Management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.07.001
10. Wilén C. Salokoski P. Kurkela E. & Sipilä K. (2004). Finnish expert report on best available techniques in energy production from solid recovered fuels. Finnish Environment Institute pp. 1–52. Available at https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/40639/FE_688.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed: 06.01.2018].
11. Kalnacs J. Arina D. & Murashov A. (2013). Content and properties of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of alternative fuel. Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ) 11 paper 8 No. 525 ISSN 2172-038X Available at http://www.icrepq.com/icrepq'13/525-kalnacs.pdf [Accessed: 06.01.2018].
12. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2005). Solid waste management. Chapter XII. Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). CalRecovery Inc. Available at http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/spc/solid_waste_management/Vol_I/Binder1.pdf [Accessed: 06.01.2018].
13. Nithikul J. (2007). Potential of refuse derived fuel production from Bangkok municipal solid waste. Thesis Asian Institute of Technology School of Environment Resources and Development Bangkok. Available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.501.4998&rep=rep1&type=pdf [Accessed: 06.01.2018]
14. Dace E. & Blumberga D. (2012). An assessment of the potential of refuse-derived fuel in Latvia. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal23(5) 503–516. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831211255088
15. Garg A. Smith R. Hill D. Simms N. & Pollard S. (2007). Wastes as co-fuels: The policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe with UK implications. Environmental Science and Technology 41(14) 4868–4874.
16. Conesa J.A. Rey L. Egea S. & Rey M.D. (2011). Pollutant formation and emissions from cement kiln stack using a solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. Metrohm. Environ Sci Technol. 45(13) 5878–84. DOI: 10.1021/es200448u
17. Kim S.-K. Jang K.-W. Hong J.-H. Jung Y.-W. & Kim H.-C. (2013). Estimated CO2 emissions and analysis of solid recovered fuel (SRF) as an alternative fuel. Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment7(1) 48–55. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2013.7.1.048.