Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

J. Gravitis 1  and J. Abolins 2
  • 1 Laboratory of Biomass Eco-Efficient Conversion of the Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, 27 Dzerbenes Str., Riga, LV-1006, LATVIA
  • 2 Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy of the University of Latvia 27 Dzerbenes Str, Riga, LV-1586, LATVIA

Abstract

Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts.

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