Episkeletozoans and bioerosional ichnotaxa on isolated bones of Late Cretaceous mosasaurs and cheloniid turtles from the Maastricht area, the Netherlands

John W.M. Jagt 1 , Mart J.M. Deckers 2 , Magda De Leebeeck 3 , Stephen K. Donovan 4  and Eric Nieuwenhuis 5
  • 1 Maastricht, Netherlands
  • 2 Netherlands
  • 3 Tremelo, Belgium
  • 4 Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Taxonomy and Systematics Group, Leiden, Netherlands
  • 5 Netherlands

Abstract

Isolated bones of three taxa of marine reptiles (Mosasaurus hoffmannii Mantell, Plioplatecarpus marshi Dollo and Allopleuron hofmanni (Gray)) from various levels within the Maastricht Formation (upper Maastrichtian) at the former ENCI-HeidelbergCement Group quarry (Maastricht, the Netherlands) exhibit bioerosional traces and encrustation. Episkeletozoans include dimyid, ostreid and monopleurid bivalves, at least three species of cheilostome and cyclostome bryozoans and two adnate calcareous foraminifera. The bones show biting traces (Gnathichnus pentax Bromley, Linichnus cf. serratus Jacobsen & Bromley and Machichnus isp.), as well as borings. The latter may be referred to Karethraichnus lakkos Zonneveld, Bartels, Gunnell & McHugh, which is here considered to be a junior synonym of Gastrochaenolites isp.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdel-Gawad, G.I., 1986. Maastrichtian non-cephalopod mollusks (Scaphopoda, Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Middle Vistula valley, central Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica 36, 69–224, 48 pls.

  • Agassiz, L., 1833–1844. Recherches sur les poissons fossiles 1–5, 1420 pp. Petitpierre, Neuchâtel.

  • Amerom, H.W.J. van, 1971. Kotpillen aus der Oberen Kreide im Maastricht-Aachener Raum (Nord-West Europa). Paleontologische-stratigrafische [sic] Notizen III. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, n.s. 22, 9–19, pl. 1.

  • Avilla, L.S., Fernandes, R. & Ramos, D.F.B., 2004. Bite marks on a crocodylomorph from the Upper Cretaceous of Brazil: evidence of social behavior? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24, 971–973.

  • Bardet, N., Jagt, J.W.M., Kuypers, M.M.M. & Dortangs, R.W., 1998. Shark tooth marks on a vertebra of the mosasaur Plioplatecarpus marshi from the Late Maastrichtian of Belgium. Publicaties van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 41, 52–55.

  • Bastiaans, D., Cornelissen, D., Verding, L., Mulder, E.W.A. & Jagt, J.W.M., 2019. Neuroanatomy of mosasaurs: an overview from the Maastrichtian type area. Program and Abstracts, XVII Conference of the EAVP, Brussels, Belgium, 2–6 July 2019, 12.

  • Bastiaans, D., Kroll, J.J.F., Cornelissen, D., Schulp, A.S. & Jagt, J.W.M., 2020. Cranial palaeopathologies in a Late Cretaceous mosasaur from the Netherlands. Cretaceous Research (in press).

  • Bastiaans, D., Schulp, A. & Jagt, J., 2014. A pathological mosasaur snout from the type Maastrichtian (southeastern Netherlands). [In:] Maxwell, E. & Miller-Camp, J. (Eds). Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Abstracts of Papers, 74th Annual Meeting, Estrel Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Program and Abstracts, 86.

  • Boessenecker, R.W., Perry, F.A. & Schmitt, J.G., 2014. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings. PLoS ONE 9, e91419.

  • Bromley, R.G., 1975. Comparative analysis of fossil and Recent echinoid bioerosion. Palaeontology 18, 725–739, pls. 85–89.

  • Brünnich Nielsen, K., 1931. Serpulidae from the Senonian and Danian deposits of Denmark. Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologisk Forening 8, 71–113, pls. 1–3.

  • Buatois, L. & Mángano, M.G., 2011. Ichnology. Organism-substrate interactions in space and time. Cambridge University Press. xii + 358 pp.

  • Buatois, L., Wisshak, M., Wilson, M.A. & Mángano, M.G., 2017. Categories of architectural designs in trace fossils: a measure of ichnodisparity. Earth-Science Reviews 164, 102–181.

  • Christensen, W.K., Schmid, F. & Schulz, M.-G., 2005. Belemnitella from the Upper Maastrichtian of Hemmoor, northwest Germany. Geologisches Jahrbuch A157 (for 2004), 23–67, pls. 1–3.

  • Chumakov, N.M., Dronov, A.V. & Mikuláš, R., 2013. New ichnospecies of scratching traces from phosphatic nodules (Cenomanian, England). Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 21, 291–299.

  • Collareta, A., Gemelli, M., Varola, A. & Bianucci, G., 2019. Trace fossils on a trace fossil: a vertebrate-bitten vertebrate coprolite from the Miocene of Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 293, 117–126.

  • Davidson, T., 1853. British fossil Brachiopoda. I. Introduction, III. On the classification of the Brachiopoda. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London 7, 42–136, pls. 1–9.

  • Defrance, M.J.L., 1827. Serpule. [In:] Levrault, F.G. (Ed.). Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles 48, 549–572. Levrault, Strasbourg/Paris.

  • Dollo, L., 1882. Note sur l’ostéologie des Mosasauridæ [sic]. Bulletin du Musée d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 1, 55–80.

  • Donovan, S.K. & Jagt, J.W.M., 2013. Aspects of clavate borings in the type Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Netherlands and Belgium. [In:] Mulder, E.W.A., Jagt, J.W.M. & Schulp, A.S. (Eds). The Sunday’s child of Dutch earth sciences – a tribute to Bert Boekschoten on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 92, 133–143.

  • Dortangs, R.W., Schulp, A.S., Mulder, E.W.A., Jagt, J.W.M., Peeters, H.H.G. & Graaf, D.T. de, 2002. A large new mosasaur from the Upper Cretaceous of The Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 81, 1–8.

  • Friedman, M., 2012. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium. [In:] Jagt, J.W.M., Donovan, S.K. & Jagt-Yazykova, E.A. (Eds). Fossils of the type Maastrichtian (Part 1). Scripta Geologica Special Issue 8, 113–142.

  • Glaub, I., Golubic, S., Gektidis, M., Radtke, G. & Vogel, K., 2007. Microborings and microbial endoliths: geological implications. [In:] Miller III, W. (Ed.). Trace fossils. Concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 368–381.

  • Godfrey, S.J., Ellwood, M., Groff, S. & Verdin, M.S., 2018. Carcharocles-bitten odontocete caudal vertebrae from the coastal eastern United States. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 63, 463–468.

  • Gray, J.E., 1831. Synopsis Reptilium; or short descriptions of the species of reptiles. Part 1. Cataphracta, Testudines, Crocodiles and Enaliosaurians. Treuttel & Wurtz, London, viii + 86 pp.

  • Grigoriev, D.V., 2013. Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Penza, Russia. Trudy Zoologicheskiy Instituta, Rossiisska Akademia Nauk 318, 148–167.

  • Hagenow, F. von, 1842. Monographie der Rügen’schen Kreideversteinerungen. III. Abtheilung. Mollusken. Neues Jahrbuch der Mineralogie, Geognosie und Petrefactenkunde 9, 528–575, pl. 9.

  • Hasiotis, S.T., Platt, B.F., Hembree, D.I. & Everhart, M.J., 2007. The trace-fossil record of vertebrates. [In:] Miller III, W. (Ed.). Trace fossils. Concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 196–218.

  • Herman, J., 1977. Les sélaciens des terrains néocrétacés & paléocènes de Belgique & des contrées limitrophes. Eléments d’une biostratigraphie intercontinentale. Mémoires pour l’Explication des Cartes géologiques et minières de la Belgique 15 (for 1975), 5–401, pls. 1–21.

  • Hofker, J., 1966. Maestrichtian, Danian and Paleocene Foraminifera. The Foraminifera of the type Maestrichtian in South Limburg, Netherlands, together with the Foraminifera of the underlying Gulpen Chalk and the overlying calcareous sediments; the Foraminifera of the Danske Kalk and the overlying greensands and clays as found in Denmark. Palaeontographica, Supplement A10, ii + 376 pp., pls. 1–86.

  • Holzapfel, E., 1889. Die Mollusken der Aachener Kreide. II. Abtheilung. Lamellibranchiata (Fortsetzung und Schluss.). Palaeontographica 35, 139–268.

  • Hunt, A.P. & Lucas, S.G., 2019. The fossil record of dental-ites (bite marks) and their importance. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 51, 1 pp.

  • Jacobsen, A.R. & Bromley, R.G., 2009. New ichnotaxa based on tooth impressions on dinosaur and whale bones. Geological Quarterly 53, 373–382.

  • Jagt, J.W.M., 1999. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium – Part 2: Crinoids. Scripta Geologica 116, 59–255, pls. 1–46.

  • Jagt, J.W.M., 2000. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium – Part 4: Echinoids. Scripta Geologica 121, 181–375, pls. 1–30.

  • Jagt, J.W.M. & Donovan, S.K., 2016. A taphonomic conundrum: a phosphatized and encrusted gastropod from the basal Maastricht Formation (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands). [In:] Sullivan, R.M. & Lucas, S.G. (Eds.). Fossil Record 5. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 74, 95–99.

  • Jagt, J.W.M. & Jagt-Yazykova, E.A., 2018. Stratigraphical ranges of tegulated inoceramid bivalves in the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (Belgium, the Netherlands). [In:] Jagt-Yazykova, E.A., Jagt, J.W.M. & Mortimore, R.N. (Eds). Advances in Cretaceous palae-ontology and stratigraphy – Christopher John Wood Memorial Volume. Cretaceous Research 87, 385–394.

  • Jagt, J.W.M., Donovan, S.K., Deckers, M.J.M., Dortangs, R.W., Kuypers, M.M.M. & Veltkamp, C.J., 1998. The Late Maastrichtian bourgueticrinid crinoid Dunnicrinus aequalis (d’Orbigny, 1841) from The Netherlands and Belgium. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 68, 129–154, pls. 1–9.

  • Jagt, J.W.M., Mulder, E.W.A., Schulp, A.S., Dortangs, R.W. & Fraaije, R.H.B., 2003a. Dinosaurs from the Maastrichtian-type area (southeastern Netherlands, northeastern Belgium). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2, 67–76.

  • Jagt, J.W.M., Verhesen, W. & Dortangs, R.W., 2003b. Opmerkelijke Luiks-Limburgse Krijtfossielen. Deel 7. Whodunnit? Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 92, 54–56.

  • Janssen, R., Van Baal, R.R. & Schulp, A.S., 2013. Bone damage in Allopleuron hofmanni (Cheloniidae, Late Cretaceous). [In:] Mulder, E.W.A., Jagt, J.W.M. & Schulp, A.S. (Eds). The Sunday’s child of Dutch earth sciences – a tribute to Bert Boekschoten on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 92, 153–157.

  • Jäger, M., 2005. Serpulidae und Spirorbidae (Polychaeta sedentaria) [sic] aus Campan und Maastricht von Norddeutschland, den Niederlanden, Belgien und angrenzenden Gebieten. Geologisches Jahrbuch A157 (for 2004), 121–249, pls. 1–10.

  • Keutgen, N., 2018. A bioclast-based astronomical times-cale for the Maastrichtian in the type area (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) and stratigraphic implications: the legacy of P.J. Felder. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 97, 229–260.

  • Keutgen, N., Remin, Z. & Jagt, J.W.M., 2017. The late Maastrichtian Belemnella kazimiroviensis group (Cephalopoda, Coleoidea) in the Middle Vistula valley (Poland) and the Maastricht area (the Netherlands, Belgium) – taxonomy and palaeobiological implications. Palaeontologia Electronica 20.2.38A, 1–29.

  • Kruytzer, E.M., 1969. Le genre Crania [sic] du Crétacé supérieur et du Post-Maastrichtien de la province de Limbourg néerlandais (Brachiopoda, Inarticulata). Publicaties van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 19, 1–42.

  • Lamarck, J.B.A.P. de Monet de, 1806. Mémoires sur les fossiles des environs de Paris, comprenant la détermination des espèces qui appartiennent aux animaux marins sans vertèbres, et dont la plupart sont figurés dans la collection des vélins du Muséum. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle de Paris 8, 156–166, pls. 35–37, 59–62.

  • Lingham-Soliar, T., 1994. The mosasaur Plioplatecarpus (Reptilia, Mosasauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Europe. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 64, 177–211, pls. 1–8.

  • Lingham-Soliar, T., 1995. Anatomy and functional morphology of the largest marine reptile known, Mosasaurus hoffmanni (Mosasauridae, Reptilia) from the Upper Cretaceous, Upper Maastrichtian of The Netherlands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B347, 155–180.

  • Mantell, G.A., 1829. A tabular arrangement of the organic remains of the county of Sussex. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 2, 201–216.

  • Marsson, T.F., 1878. Die Foraminiferen der weissen Schreibkreide der Insel Rügen. Mittheilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Neu-Vorpommern und Rügen in Greifswald 10, 115–196.

  • Mikuláš, R., Kadlecová, E., Fejfar, O. & Dvořák, Z., 2006. Three new ichnogenera of biting and gnawing traces on reptilian and mammalian bones: a case study from the Miocene of the Czech Republic. Ichnos 13, 113–127.

  • Neumann, C. & Hampe, O., 2018. Eggs for breakfast? Analysis of a probable mosasaur biting trace on the Cretaceous echinoid Echinocorys scutata Leske, 1778. Fossil Record 21, 55–66.

  • Nieuwenhuis, E., 2017. Opnieuw zeeschildpadresten uit de ENCI-groeve, Maastricht. Sprekende Bodem 61, 101–103.

  • Noto, C.R., Main, D.J. & Drumheller, S.K., 2012. Feeding traces and paleobiology of a Cretaceous (Cenomanian) crocodyliform: example from the Woodbine Formation of Texas. Palaios 27, 105–115.

  • Orbigny, A.D. d’, 1840–1841. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des crinoïdes vivants et fossiles comprenant la description géologique et zoologique de ces animaux 1. 1–32, pls. 1–6 (1840); 2/3, 33–98, pls. 7–18 (1841). The author, Paris.

  • Pirrone, C.A., Buatois, L.A. & Bromley, R.G., 2014. Ichnotaxobases for bioerosion trace fossils in bones. Journal of Paleontology 88, 195–203.

  • Pobiner, B., 2008. Paleoecological information in predator tooth marks. Journal of Taphonomy 6, 373–397.

  • Ryckholt, P. de, 1851–1862. Mélanges paléontologiques. Mémoires couronnes par l’Académie royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 24, 1–176, pls. 1–10.

  • Santos, A. & Mayoral, E., 2006. Bioerosive structures of sclerozoan foraminifera from the Lower Pliocene of southern Spain : a contribution to thr palaeoecology of marine hard substrate communities. Palaeontology 49, 719–732.

  • Schwimmer, D.R., Stewart, J.D. & Williams, G.D., 1997. Scavenging by sharks of the genus Squalicorax in the Late Cretaceous of North America. Palaios 12, 71–83.

  • Street, H.P. & Caldwell, M.W., 2016. Rediagnosis and re-description of Mosasaurus hoffmannii (Squamata: Mosasauridae) and an assessment of species assigned to the genus Mosasaurus. Geological Magazine, doi: 10.1017/S0016756816000236

  • Taylor, P.D. & Wilson, M.A., 2002. A new terminology for marine organisms inhabiting hard substrates. Palaios 17, 522–525.

  • Taylor, P.D. & Wilson, M.A., 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62, 1–103.

  • Thielens, A., 1872. Relation de l’excursion faite par la Société Malacologique de Belgique à Orp-le-Grand, Folz-les-Caves [sic], Wansin, suivie de la description de deux espèces nouvelles par H. Nyst [Faune maestrichtienne. Description d’une serpule fossile nouvelle (Serpula thielensi) [sic] provenant de Folx-les-Caves, près de Jodoigne (Brabant). Faune maestrichtienne. Description d’une huître fossile nouvelle (Ostrea podopsidea) [sic] de la Craie de Ciply, de Folx-les-Caves et de Wansin]. Annales de la Société Malacologique de Belgique 6 (for 1871), 1–36 + i–iv, pl. 4.

  • Valais, S. de, Díaz-Martínez, I., Citton, P., Maniel, O. & de la Fuente, M., 2020. A predation attempt in a Late Cretaceous pleurodire turtle from Patagonia. Cretaceous Research 107, 104290.

  • Vallon, L.H., Rindsberg, A.K. & Bromley, R.G., 2015. An updated classification of animal behaviour preserved in substrates. Geodinamica Acta http://dx.doi.org/10.1 080/09853111.2015.1065306.

  • Voigt, E., 1977. On grazing traces produced by the radula of fossil and Recent gastropods and chitons. [In:] Crimes, T.P. & Harper, J.C. (Eds). Trace fossils 2, Seel House Press, Liverpool, 335–346.

  • Waller, T.R., 2012. Morphology, phylogeny, and systematic revision of genera in the Dimyidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 86, 829–851.

  • Wilson, M.A., 2007. Macroborings and the evolution of marine bioerosion. [In:] Miller III, W. (Ed.). Trace fossils. Concepts, problems, prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 356–367.

  • Wisshak, M., Knaust, D. & Bertling, M., 2019. Bioerosion ichnotaxa: review and annotated list. Facies 65, 24. doi: 10.1007/s10347-019-0561-8.

  • Woodward, S., 1833. An outline of the geology of Norfolk. 60 pp., pls. 1–6. Longman & Co., London.

  • Zonneveld, J.-P., Bartels, W.S., Gunnell, G.F. & McHugh, L.P., 2016. Borings in early Eocene turtle shell from the Wasatch Formation, South Pass, Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology doi: 10.1017/jpa.2015.61.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search