A hitherto unknown river type from the Archaean at Bhurkuli (Jharkhand, E India)

A.J. (Tom) van Loon 1 , 2  und Shuvabrata De 3
  • 1 College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, No.579, Qianwangang Road, Huangdao District, , Qingdao, China
  • 2 Geocom Consultants, Valle del Portet 17, 03726 , Benitachell, Spain
  • 3 3CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, , Hyderabad, India


The Archaean granitoid pluton of the Singhbhum craton in E India is overlain by Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasediments. These sediments are still poorly known and their stratigraphy is under debate. Several scattered, most probably Meso- to Neoarchaean, conglomerates are present in the state of Jharkhand that differ so much in characteristics that they are probably not related to each other. The sedimentology of a series of conglomerate patches and layers near Bhurkuli has been investigated, including the characteristics of the clasts. It is deduced on the basis of these characteristics and the sedimentological context that the Bhurkuli conglomerates represent the channel facies of a river system that differed from the types of fluvial systems that exist nowadays.

Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.

  • Acharyya, S.K., Gupta, A. & Orihashi, Y., 2010. Neoarchaean- Palaeoproterozoic stratigraphy of the Dhanjori Basin, Singhbhum Craton, eastern India: and recording of a few U-Pb zircon dates from its basal part. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 527-536.

  • Bhattacharya, H.N. & Mahapatra, S., 2008. Evolution of the Proterozoic rift margin sediments - North Singhbhum mobile belt, Jharkhand-Orissa, India. Precambrian Research 162, 365-386.

  • Bhushan, S.K. & Sahoo, P., 2010. Geochemistry of clastic sediments from Sargar supracrustals and Bababudan Group, Karnataka: implications on Archean Proterozoic boundary. Journal of the Geological Society of India 75, 829-840.

  • Bluck, B.J., 1971. Sedimentation in the meandering River Endrick. Scottish Journal of Geology 7, 93-138.

  • Boogaart, P.W., Van Balen, R.T. Vandenberghe, J. & Kasse, C., 2003. Process-based modelling of fluvial system response to rapid climate change II. Application to the River Maas (The Netherlands) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial transition. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 2097-2110.

  • Brierley, G.J., 1989. River planform facies models: the sedimentology of braided, wandering and meandering reaches of the Squamish River, British Columbia. Sedimentary Geology 61, 17-35.

  • Cailleux, A., 1945. Distinction des galêts marins et fluviatiles. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 15, 375-404.

  • Carling, P., Jansen, J. & Meshkova, L., 2014. Multichannel rivers: their definition and classification. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39, 26-37.

  • Chakraborty, K.L., 1996. A comprehensive geological review of the Precambrian Banded Iron Formation (BIF) of Bihar and Orissa, eastern India. Indian Journal of Geology 68, 211-236.

  • Chakraborty, K.L. & Majumder, T., 1986. Geological aspects of the Banded Iron Formation of Bihar and Orissa. Journal of the Geological Society of India 28, 109-133.

  • Chatterjee, R.S. & Das, S., 2004. Tattekere conglomerate- quartzite association: origin and stratigraphic position of a disputed Archean formation in the supracrustals of Karnataka, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 23, 247-261.

  • Cowan, D.S., 1978. Origin of blueschist-bearing chaotic rocks in the Franciscan Complex, San Simeon, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 89, 1415-1423.

  • Davies, N.S. & Gibling, M.R., 2011. Evolution of fixed-channel alluvial plains in response to Carboniferous vegetation. Nature Geoscience 4, 629-633.

  • De, A., 1957. Conglomerate deformation in the western part of the Singhbhum shear zone. Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress, Abstract, 168-169.

  • Desloges, J.R. & Church, M.A., 1989. Wandering gravel- bed rivers. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien 33, 360-364.

  • Dobkins Jr., J.E. & Folk, R.L., 1970. Shape development on Tahiti-Nui. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 40, 1167-1203.

  • Dunn, J.A., 1929. Geology of North Singhbhum including parts of Ranchi and Manbhum Districts. Geological Society of India Memoirs 54, 1-166.

  • Dunn, J.A. & Dey, A.K., 1942. The geology and petrology of eastern Singhbhum and surrounding areas. Geological Survey of India Memoirs (Hyderabad) 69, 281-456.

  • Eriksson, P.G., Mazumder, R., Sarkar, S., Bose, P.K., Altermann, W. & Van der Merwe, R., 1999. The 2.7-2.0 Ga volcano-sedimentary record of Africa, India and Australia: evidence for global and local changes in sea level and continental freeboard. Precambrian Research 97, 269-302.

  • Huisink, M., 2000. Changing river styles in response to Weichselian climate changes in the Vecht valley, eastern Netherlands. Sedimentary Geology 133, 115-134.

  • King, W.A. & Martini, I.P., 1984. Morphology and recent sediments of the lower anastomosing reaches of the Attawapiskat River, James Bay, Ontario, Canada. Sedimentary Geology 37, 295-320.

  • Leleu, S., Hartley, A.J. & Williams, B.P.J., 2009. Largescale alluvial architecture and correlation in a Triassic pebbly braided river system, Lower Wolfville Formation (Fundy Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada). Journal of Sedimentary Research 79, 265-286.

  • Makaske, B., 1998. Anastomosing rivers; forms, processes and sediments. Nederlandse Geografische Studies 249. Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap/Faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht.

  • Makaske, B., 2001. Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products. Earth-Science Reviews 53, 149-196.

  • Makaske, B., 2015. Anastomosing pattern. In: H. Hargitai & A. Kereszturi (Eds): Encyclopedia of planetary landforms. Springer (New York), 73-78.

  • Mazumder, R., 2005. Proterozoic sedimentation and volcanism in the Singhbhum crustal province, India and their implications. Sedimentary Geology 176, 167-193.

  • Mazumder, R., Bose, P.K. & Sarkar, S., 2000. A commentary on the tectonosedimentary record of the pre-2.0 Ga continental growth of India vis-a-vis Pre-Gondwana Afro-Indian supercontinent. Journal of African Earth Sciences 30, 201-217.

  • Mazumder, R., Van Loon, A.J., Mallik, L., Reddy, S.M., Arima, M., Altermann, W., Eriksson, P.G. & De, S., 2012. Mesoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic stratigraphic record of the Singhbhum crustal province, eastern India: a synthesis. In: Mazumder, R., Saha, D. (Eds): Palaeoproterozoic of India. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 365, 31-49.

  • McCann, A.M. & Kennedy, M.J., 2009. A probable glacio- marine deposit of Late Ordovician-Early Silurian age from the north central Newfoundland Appalachian Belt. Geological Magazine 111, 549-564.

  • Miall, A.D., 1977. A review of the braided-river depositional environment. Earth-Science Reviews 13, 1-62.

  • Miall, A.D., 2013. Fluvial depositional systems. Springer International Publishers (New York), 316 pp.

  • Mohapatra, K., Singh, P.P. Mishra, P. & Mahant, K., 2008. Detrital iron-ore deposits in the Iron Ore Group of rocks, northern Orissa, eastern India. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 55, 1139-1152.

  • Mol, J., Vandenberghe, J. & Kasse, C., 2000. River response to variations of periglacial climate in mid-latitude Europe. Geomorphology 33, 131-148.

  • Mukhuopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, T. Chakraborty, D. & Dey, A.K., 1990. Structural pattern in the Precambrian rocks of Sonua-Lotapahar region, North Singhbhum, eastern India. Proceedings of the India Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences 99, 249-268.

  • Mukhopadhyay, J., Ghosh, G., Beukes, N.J., & Gutzmer, J., 2007. Precambrian alluvial iron ores in the Singhbhum craton: implications for origin, age of BIF-hosted high-grade iron ores and stratigraphy of the Iron Ore Group. Journal of the Geological Society of India 70, 34-42.

  • Naha, K., Mukhupadhyay, D., Daastidar, S. & Mukhuopadhyay, R.P., 1995. Basement-cover relations between granitoid gneiss body and its metasedimentary envelope: a structural study from the Early Precambrian Dharwar tectonic province, southern India. Precambrian Research 72, 283-299.

  • Nanson, G.C. & Croke, J.C., 1992. A genetic classification of floodplains. Geomorphology 4, 459-486.

  • Reddy, I., Reddy, M.S., Satyaranrayana, G. & Kalluraya, V.K.K., 2002. New find of conglomerate horizons in southern part of Cuddapah Basin and its stratigraphic significance. Journal of the Geological Society of India 59, 213-217.

  • Reimer, R.O., Condie, K.C., Schneider, G. & Georgi, A. 1985. Petrography and geochemistry of granitoid and metamorphite pebbles from the early Archaean Moodies Group, Barberton Mountainland/South Africa. Precambrian Research 29, 383-404.

  • Roy, A.B. & Bhattacharya, H.N., 2012. Tectonostratigraphic and geochronologic reappraisal constraining the growth and evolution of Singhbhum Archaean craton, eastern India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 80, 455-469.

  • Rust, B.R., 1981. Sedimentation in an arid-zone anastomosing fluvial system: Cooper’s Creek, Central Australia. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 51, 745-755.

  • Saha, A.K., 1994. Crustal evolution of Singhbhum-North, Orissa, eastern India. Geological Society of India Memoir 27, 341 pp.

  • Shrinivasan, R. & Naqvi, S.M., 1990. Some distinctive trends in the evolution of the Early Precambrian (Archaean) Dharwar craton, South India. Developments in Precambrian Geology (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 8C, 245-266.

  • Sinha, K.K., Rao, N.K., Shah, V. & Sunilkumar, T.S., 1997. Stratigraphic succession of Precambrium of Singh bhum: evidence from quartz pebble conglomerate. Journal of the Geological Society of India 49, 599-589.

  • Smith, D.G., 1983. Anastomosed fluvial deposits: modern examples from Western Canada. In: J. Collinson & J. Lewin (Eds): Modern and ancient fluvial systems. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 6, 155-168.

  • Smith, D.G., 1986. Anastomosing river deposits, sedimentation rates and basin subsidence, Magdalena River, northwestern Colombia, South America. Sedimentary Geology 46, 177-196.

  • Smith, D.G. & Smith, N.D., 1980. Sedimentation in anastomosed river systems: examples from alluvial valleys near Banff, Alberta. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 157-164.

  • Taylor, C.F.H., 1999. The role of overbank flow in governing the form of an anabranching river: the Fitzroy river, northwestern Australia. In: N.D. Smith & J. Rogers (Eds): Fluvial sedimentology VI. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 28, 77-91.

  • Van Huissteden, J. & Kasse, C., 2001. Detection of rapid climate change in Last Glacial fluvial successions in The Netherlands. Global and Planetary Change 28, 319-339.

  • Van Loon, A.J. & De, S., 2015. Archaean sedimentation on the Singhbhum Craton: depositional environments of conglomerates in Jharkhand (east India). In: R. Mazumder & P.G. Eriksson (Eds): Precambrian basins of India: stratigraphic and tectonic context. Geological Society, London, Memoirs 43, 109-119.

  • Van Loon, A.J., Mazumder, R. & De, S., 2012. Unravelling the depositional environment of the Archaean Rajkharsawan conglomerate (Jharkhand, E India). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 91, 129-135.

  • Vasudev, V.N. & Chadwick, B., 2008. Lithology and structure of the auriferous Hutti Schist belt, northern Karnataka: implications for Neoarchaean oblique convergence in the Dharwar craton, South India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 71, 239-256.

  • Wentworth, C.K.,1922. A method of measuring and plotting the shapes of pebbles. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 730C, 91-102.

  • Widera, M., 2010. The morphology of fossil pebbles as a tool for determing their transport processes (Koźmin South lignite open-cast pit, central Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae 80, 315-325.


Zeitschrift + Hefte