Seasonal Variation of the Calcifying Green Alga Phacotus Lenticularis (Ehrenb.) Stein in Water Bodies under Human Influence (Mid-Western Poland)

Open access


The unicellular flagellates of the genus Phacotus, which form a solid calcite lorica by extracellular precipitation of calcium carbonate are some of the nanoplankters quite frequently occurring in hardwater ecosystems of the temperate zone. The aim of this study was to describe seasonal changes of Phacotus lenticularis populations in several types of water bodies (a glacial lake, small and shallow ponds, and a lowland river) in relation to some environmental parameters. All the water bodies are subject to multiple human pressure: recreation, fishing, agriculture, and urbanization. P. lenticularis individuals preserved in Lugol’s solution were counted under an inverted microscope (after sedimentation in 14 or 9 ml chambers), including both empty and filled loricae. Its populations differed both between seasons and between waters. High P. lenticularis abundance was mainly limited to the summer months. It was observed at temperatures above 19°C and pH values above 7.8, in water characterized by quite high electrolytic conductivity (>500 μS cm-1). Statistical analysis reveals two significant relationships between physicochemical parameters and the abundance of P. lenticularis. This suggests that in the investigated waters the biotic factors and processes are probably more important regulators of changes in the density of its population than nutrients.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bucka H. Wilk-Woźniak E. 2002 Gatunki kosmopolityczne i ubikwistyczne wśród glonów pro- i eukariotycznych występujących w zbiornikach wodnych Polski południowej (A monograph of cosmopolitan and ubiquitous species among pro- and eukaryotic algae from water bodies in southern Poland) Zakład Biologii Wód im. Karola Starmacha PAN Kraków 233 pp (in Polish English summary).

  • Dittrich M. Koschel R. 2002 Interaction between calcite precipitation (natural and artificial) and phosphorus cycle in the hardwater lake Hydrobiologia 469(1-3): 49-57.

  • Dittrich M. Obst M. 2004 Are picoplankton responsible for calcite precipitation in lakes? Ambio 33(8): 559-564.

  • Dunlop J.R. Walne P.L. 1993 Microarchitecture and mineralization in loricae of Phacotacean flagellates Acta Protozool. 32: 237-243.

  • Gołdyn R. 1989 Algae in the seston of the middle section of the River Radunia its tributaries and dam reservoirs (Northern Poland) Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 34(1-2): 201-245.

  • Gołdyn R. Messyasz B. 2010 Ocena stanu ekologicznego Jeziora Durowskiego (Estimation of ecological status of Lake Durowskie) [typescript] Wydział Biologii UAM w Poznaniu Poznań 98 pp (in Polish).

  • Gołdyn R. Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2004 Changes in the phytoseston of a river-lake system in Drawieński National Park Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 3(2): 17-28.

  • Gruenert U. Raeder U. 2014 Growth responses of the calcite- loricated freshwater phytoflagellate Phacotus lenticularis (Chlorophyta) to the CaCO3 saturation state and meteorological changes J. Plankton Res. 36(3): 630-640.

  • Gumiński S. 1990 Fizjologia glonów i sinic (Physiology of algae and cyanobacteria) Wydaw. UWr Wrocław 207 pp (in Polish).

  • Hamilton S.K. Bruesewitz D.A. Horst G.P. Weed D.B. Sarnelle O. 2009 Biogenic calcite-phosphorus precipitation as a negative feedback to lake eutrophication Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 66(2): 343-350.

  • Hepperle D. Krienitz L. 1996 The extracellular calcification of zoospores of Phacotus lenticularis (Chlorophyta Chlamydomonadales) Eur. J. Phycol. 31(1): 11-21.

  • Hermanowicz W. Dojlido J.R. Dożański W. Koziorowski B. Zerbe J. 1999 Fizyczno-chemiczne badanie wody i ścieków (Physical-chemical examination of water and wastewater) Wydaw. Arkady Warszawa 556 pp (in Polish).

  • Kaźmierska A. 2015 Wpływ antropopresji na bakterioplankton i autotroficzny pikoplankton w pelagialu Jeziora Strzeszyńskiego (Anthropogenic impact on bacterioplankton and autotrophic picoplankton in Strzeszyńskie Lake) [Dissertation] Wydz. Biologii UAM w Poznaniu Poznań 342 pp (in Polish English summary).

  • Kaźmierska A. Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2015 Evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in the quality of water: a case study of small stream in Poland J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 6(1): 137-142.

  • Koschel R. Benndorf J. Proft G. Recknagel F. 1983 Calcite precipitation as a natural control mechanism of eutrophication Arch. Hydrobiol. 98: 380-408.

  • Krienitz L. Koschel R. Giering B. Casper S.J. Hepperle D. 1993 Phenomenology of organismic calcite precipitation by Phacotus in hardwater lakes and ponds of northeastern Germany Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 25: 170-174.

  • Mądrecka B. 2015 Dynamika zmian fitoplanktonu w środkowym biegu rzeki Warty i jej wpływ na koncepcje uzdatniania wody (Dynamics of phytoplankton changes in the middle reaches of the river Warta and its impact on water treatment concepts) [Dissertation] Politechnika Poznańska Poznań 250 pp (in Polish English summary).

  • Mądrecka B. Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2017 Mass development of phytoplankton in the River Warta in Poznań (Poland) in the 21st centuary Limnol. Rev. 17(2): 79-88.

  • Padisák J. Crossetti L.O. Naseli-Flores L. 2009 Use and misuse in the application of the phytoplankton functional classification: a critical review with updates Hydrobiologia 621(1): 1-19.

  • Pajchrowska M. Szpakowska B. 2014 Assessment of occurrence microphytes and trophic status of small water body in the Wielkopolska Region (western Poland) Pol. J. Natur. Sc. 29(1): 17-33.

  • Schlegel I. Koschel R. Krienitz L. 1998 On the occurrence of Phacotus lenticularis (Chlorophyta) in lakes of different trophic state Hydrobiologia 369/370: 353-361.

  • Schlegel I. Krienitz L. Hepperle D. 2000 Variability of calcification of Phacotus lenticularis (Chlorophyta Chlamydomonadales) in nature and culture Phycologia 39(4): 318-322.

  • Stabel H.H. 1986 Calcite precipitation in Lake Constance: chemical equilibrium sedimentation and nucleation by algae Limnol. Oceanogr. 31(5): 1081-1093.

  • Stefaniak K. Gołdyn R. Kowalczewska-Madura K. 2007 Changes of summer phytoplankton communities in Lake Swarzędzkie in the 2000-2003 period Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 36(Suppl. 1): 77-85.

  • Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2005 Cyanobacteria in a slightly eutrophic lake: seasonal fluctuations and contribution to total phytoplankton Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 34(Suppl. 3): 115-124.

  • Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2006 Trophic status of lake water evaluated using phytoplankton community structure - change after two decades Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 15(1): 139-144.

  • Szeląg-Wasielewska E. 2007 Trophic state assessment based on late summer phytoplankton community structure: a case study for epilimnetic lake water Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 36(3): 53-63.

  • Szeląg-Wasielewska E. Pajchrowska M. Mądrecka B. 2016 Biomineralizacja a jakość i trofia wód powierzchniowych (Biomineralization versus water quality and trophy of surface waters) [in:] Dymaczewski Z. et al. (eds.) Zaopatrzenie w wodę jakość i ochrona wód (Water supply and water quality) Poznań: 395-412 (in Polish English summary).

  • Wetzel R.G. Likens G.E. 1991 Limnological analyses Springer-Verlag New York 391 pp.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 584 103 9
PDF Downloads 195 101 2