Nitrogen and phosphorus in cascade multi-system tropical reservoirs: water and sediment

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this research was to analyze the horizontal spatial heterogeneity of both water and superficial sediment quality among and within the reservoirs of the Cantareira System (CS), focusing on concentrations of N and P, attributed to the dumping of raw domestic sewage into water bodies, which is the main cause of water pollution in São Paulo State (Brazil). The CS is a multi-system complex composed of five interconnected reservoirs, with water transported by gravity through 48 km of tunnels and channels. From the last reservoir of the CS, with an output of 33 m3 s−1, the water is conducted to a water treatment plant, producing half of the water consumed by 19 million people inhabiting São Paulo city. The upstream reservoirs are more eutrophic than the downstream ones. Data also suggest that the low phytoplankton biomass (ranging from 0.9 to 14.4 μg dm−3) is regulated by the low nutrient availability, mainly of phosphorus (TP ranging from below the detection limit, <9.0 μg dm−3, to 47.3 μg dm−3). For water, the DIN/TP ratios values range from 19 to 380. The upstream reservoirs function as nutrient accumulators and the sediment is the main compartment in which P and N are stored. Although the reservoirs are located in different river basins and are not in sequence along the same river, the results suggest a marked gradient between the reservoirs, with features similar to those of cascade reservoirs. The large volumes flowing through the canals and tunnels could explain the observed pattern. The CS reservoirs can therefore be considered multi-system reservoirs in cascade, constituting a particular case of multi-system reservoirs.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Almeida G.A. Weber R.R. 2005 Fármacos na represa Billings (Pharmaceuticals in the Billings Reservoir) Rev. Saúde Amb. 6(2): 7–13 (in Portuguese).

  • [ANA-DAEE] Agência Nacional de Águas. Departamento de Águas e Energia Elétrica (National Water Agency. Department of Water and Electrical Energy) 2013 Dados de referência acerca da outorga do Sistema Cantareira (Reference data for the Cantareira System). Retrieved from: www.agua.org.br/editor/file/cantareira/dados.pdf. (Accessed on 29 September 2014).

  • Andersen J.M. 1976 An ignition method for determination of total phosphorus in lake sediments Water Res. 10: 329–331.

  • [APHA] American Public Health Association 2005 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater APHA-AWWA-WEF Washington.

  • Azevedo L.B. van Zelm R. Leuven R.S.E.W. Hendriks A.J. Huijbregts M.A.J. 2015 Combined ecological risks of nitrogen and phosphorus in European freshwaters Environ. Pollut. 200: 85–92.

  • Barbosa A.M.C. Solano M..LM. Umbuzeiro G.A. 2015 Pesticides in drinking water – the Brazilian monitoring program Front. Public Health 3: 246.

  • Barbosa F.A.R. Padisák J. Espíndola E.L.G. Borics G. Rocha O. 1999 The cascading reservoir continuum concept (CRCC) and its application to the river Tietê basin São Paulo State Brazil [in:] Tundisi J.G. Straškraba M. (eds) Theoretical reservoir ecology and its applications Backhuys Leiden: 425–437.

  • Becker V. Caputo L. Ordóñez J. Marcé R. Armengol J. Crossetti L.O. Huszar V.L.M. 2010 Driving factors of the phytoplankton functional groups in a deep Mediterranean reservoir Water Res. 44(11): 3345–3354.

  • Bergamasco A.M.D.D. Sékula C. Daniel M.H.B. Queiroz F.B. Cabral A.R. 2011 Contaminantes químicos em águas destinadas ao consumo humano no Brasil (Drinking water chemical contaminants in Brazil) Cad. Saúde Colet. 19(4): 479–86 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Braga B.P.F. Porto M.F.A. Silva R.T. 2006 Water management in metropolitan São Paulo Int. J. Water. Resour. D. 22(2) 337–352.

  • Caleffi S. 2000 Impacto do uso de sulfato de cobre sobre o zooplâncton na represa Guarapiranga (Impact of the use of copper sulphate on zooplankton in the Guarapiranga Reservoir) [in:] Espíndola E.L.G. Paschoal C.M.R.B Rocha O. Bohrer M.B.C. Oliveira Neto A.L. (eds) Ecotoxicologia: Perspectivas para o Século XXI (Ecotoxicology: Perspectives for the 21st Century) RiMa Editora São Carlos: 3–14 (in Portuguese).

  • Cardoso-Silva S. Nishimura P.Y. Padial P.R. Mariani C.F. Moschini-Carlos V. Pompêo M. 2014 Compartimentalização e qualidade da água: o caso da Represa Billings (Compartmentalization and water quality: Billings reservoir case) Bioikos 28(1): 31–43 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Carlson R.E. 1977 A trophic state index for lakes Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(2): 36l–369.

  • Carvalho G.B.B. Thomas P.T. 2007 Repartição das vazões transpostas da bacia hidrográfica do rio Piracicaba para a bacia hidrográfica do Alto Tietê pelo Sistema Cantareira para fins de cobrança pelo uso de recursos hídricos (Distribution of the transposed flows from the Piracicaba river basin to the Alto Tietê basin by the Cantareira System for the purpose of charging for the use of water resources) XVII Simpósio Brasileiro de Recursos Hídricos ABRH São Paulo: 11 pp (in Portuguese English summary).

  • [CETESB] Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental 2008 Relatório de qualidade das águas interiores no Estado de São Paulo 2007 (Inland water quality report for the State of São Paulo 2007) Governo do Estado de São Paulo – Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente São Paulo 537 pp (in Portuguese).

  • [CETESB] Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental 2013 Qualidade das águas superficiass no Estado de São Paulo 2012 (Surface water quality in the State of São Paulo 2012) Governo do Estado de São Paulo – Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente São Paulo 370 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Cole G.A. 1979 Textbook of Limnology Mosby Company Saint Louis 281 pp.

  • [CONAMA] Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (National Council for the Environment) 2005 Resolução No 357 de 17 de março de 2005 Dispõe sobre a classificação dos corpos de água e diretrizes ambientais para o seu enquadramento bem como estabelece as condições e padrões de lançamento de efluentes e dá outras providências (Resolution No. 357 of March 17 2005 provides for the classification of water bodies and environmental guidelines for their classification as well as establishes the conditions and standards for effluent discharge and provides other measures) Diário Oficial da União (DOU) 53: 58–63. Retrieved from http://www.siam.mg.gov.br/sla/download.pdf?idNorma=2747 [Accessed 6 June 2016] (in Portuguese).

  • Conceição F.T. Sardinha D.S. Godoy L.H. Fernandes A.M. Pedrazzi F.J.M. 2015 Influência sazonal no transporte específico de metais totais e dissolvidos nas águas fluviais da bacia do Alto Sorocaba (SP) (Seasonal influence on the specific transport of total and dissolved metals in the fluvial waters of the Alto Sorocaba basin) Geochim. Bras. 29(1): 23–34 (in Portuguese).

  • David M.B. Wall L.G. Royer T.V. Tank J.L. 2006 Denitrification and the nitrogen budget of a reservoir in an agricultural landscape Ecol. Appl. 16(6): 2177–2190.

  • [DDE] District Department of the Environment 2012 2011 & 2012 DC MS4 Annual Report. Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES Permit No. DC0000221 Government of the District of Columbia Washington 93 pp. Retrieved from https://doee.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/ddoe/publication/attachments/2012%20Annual%20Report%202-26-13%20-%20Amended.pdf [Accessed 12 July 2016].

  • Ding X. Jiang C. 2012 Pollutions characteristics of nutrients in sediment at Changang Reservoir Procedia Eng. 28: 178–181.

  • Dornfeld C.B. Leite M.A. Espíndola E.L.G. 2004 Caracterização física e química do sedimento do reservatório de Salto Grande Americana SP (Physical and chemical characterization of sediment from Salto Grande reservoir Americana SP) [in:] Espíndola E.L.G. Leite M.A. Dornfeld C.B. (eds) Reservatório de Salto Grande (Americana SP): Caracterização impactos e propostas de manejo (Salto Grande Reservoir (Americana SP): Characterization impacts and management proposals) RiMa Editora São Carlos: 91–105 (in Portuguese).

  • Ducrot R. Kruitwagen M. Wagemans F. van Essen P. Jacobi P. 2005 Land and water management in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo: Presentation of the geographic and institutional context PROCAM-USP São Paulo 18 pp.

  • Ensign S.H. Doyle M.W. 2006 Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks J. Geophys. Res. 111(G04009): 1–13.

  • Eskinazi-Sant’Anna E.M. Menezes R. Costa I.S. Panosso R.F. Araújo M.F. Attayde J.L. 2007 Composição da comunidade zooplanctônica em reservatórios eutróficos do semi-árido do Rio Grande do Norte (Zooplankton composition in eutrophic reservoirs of the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte state) Oecol. Bras. 11(3): 410–421 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Espíndola E.L.G. Rocha O. Rietzler A.C. 2004 Caracterização limnológica do reservatório de Salto Grande (Americana SP): Uma análise espacial e temporal (Limnological characterization of the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana SP): a spatial and temporal analysis) [in:] Espíndola E.L.G. Leite M.A. Dornfeld C.B. (eds) Reservatório de Salto Grande (Americana SP): Caracterização impactos e propostas de manejo (Salto Grande Reservoir (Americana SP): Characterization impacts and management proposals) RiMa Editora São Carlos: 37–54 (in Portuguese).

  • Golterman H.L. 2004 The chemistry of phosphate and nitrogen compounds in sediments Kluwer Dordrecht 251 pp.

  • Gomes L.C. 2004 Outorga de recursos hídricos no Estado de São Paulo (Granting of water resources in the State of São Paulo) [PowerPoint presentation] Departamento de Águas e Energia Elétrica (DAEE) São Paulo 33 pp. Retrieved from http://www.comitepcj.sp.gov.br/download/DAEE_Leila_29-01-04.pps [Accessed 9 May 2015].

  • Hackbart V.C.S. Marques A.R.P. Kida B.M.S. Tolussi C.E. Negri D.D.B. Martins I.A Fontana I. Collucci M.P. Brandimarti A.L. Moschini-Carlos V. Cardoso-Silva S. Merinho P.A Freire R.H.F. Pompêo M. 2015 Avaliação expedita da heterogeneidade espacial horizontal intra e inter reservatórios do Sistema Cantareira: represas Jaguari e Jacarei São Paulo (Expedited evaluation of horizontal spatial heterogeneity within and between reservoirs of the Cantareira System: Jaguari and Jacarei reservoirs São Paulo) [in:] Pompêo M. Moschini-Carlos V. Nishimura P.Y. Cardoso-Silva S. López-Doval J.C. (eds) Ecologia de reservatórios e interfaces (Ecology of reservoirs and interfaces) Instituto de Biociências USP São Paulo: 96–108 (in Portuguese).

  • Hammer Ø. Harper D.A.T. Ryan P.D. 2001 Past: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis Palaeontol. Electron. 4(1) art. #4: 1–9.

  • Huerta B. Marti E. Gros M. López P. Pompêo M. Armengol J. Barceló D. Balcázar J.L. Rodríguez-Mozaz S. Marcé R. 2013 Exploring the links between antibiotic occurrence antibiotic resistance and bacterial communities in water supply reservoirs Sci. Total Environ. 456–457: 161–170.

  • [INAG IP] Instituto da Água (Water Institute) 2009 Manual para a avaliação da qualidade biológica da água. Protocolo de amostragem e análise para o Fitoplâncton (Manual for the evaluation of the biological quality of water. Sampling and analysis protocol for phytoplankton) Ministério do Ambiente do Ordenamento do Território e do Desenvolvimento Regional. Instituto da Água I.P. Lisboa 67 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Jones O.A. Lester J.N. Voulvoulis N. 2005 Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? Trends Biotechnol. 23(4): 163–167.

  • Jorcin A. Nogueira M.G. 2005a Phosphate distribution in the sediments along a cascade of reservoirs (Paranapanema River SE Brazil) [in:] Serrano L. Golterman H.L. (eds.) Phosphates in Sediments Proc. of the 4th International Symposium Backhuys Leiden: 77–86.

  • Jorcin A. Nogueira M.G. 2005b Temporal and spatial patterns based on sediment and sediment-water interface characteristics along a cascade of reservoirs (Paranapanema River south-east Brazil) Lake Reserv. Manage. 10(1): 1–12.

  • Junakova N. Balintova M. 2012 Assessment of nutrient concentration in reservoir bottom sediments Procedia Eng. 42: 165–170.

  • Kimmel B.L. Lind O.T. Paulson L.J. 1990 Reservoir primary production [in:] Thorton K.W. Kimmel B.L. Payne F.E. (eds.) Reservoir limnology: ecological perspectives Wiley New York: 133–194.

  • Koroleff M. 1976 Determination of nutrients [in:] Grasshoff K. (ed.) Methods of sea water analysis Verlag Chemie Weinhein: 117–181.

  • Lamparelli M.C. 2004 Graus de trofia em corpos d’água de estado de São Paulo: Avaliação dos métodos de monitoramento (Thropic status in São Paulo state water bodies: evaluation of monitoring methodologies) [PhD thesis] Instituto de Biociências Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo 238 pp (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Lehner B. Liermann C.R. Revenga C. Vörösmarty C. Fekete B. Crouzet P. Döll P. Endejan M. Frenken K. Magome J. Nilsson C. Robertson J.C. Rödel R. Sindorf N. Wisser D. 2011 High-resolution mapping of the world’s reservoirs and dams for sustainable river-flow management Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(9): 494–502.

  • Lewis G.M. Chen A.S.C. Wang L. 2007 Arsenic removal from drinking water by point of use reverse osmosis (POU RO): U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale ID: Final Performance Evaluation Report Report No: EPA 600/R-07/082 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington 58 pp.

  • Lima A.E. Severi W. 2014 Estado trófico na cascata de reservatórios de um rio no semiárido brasileiro (Trophic state of reservoirs in the cascade of a river in the Brazilian semiarid) Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Agrár. 9(1): 124–133 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Liu H. Pan D. Chen P. 2016 A two-year field study and evaluation of water quality and trophic state of a large shallow drinking water reservoir in Shanghai: China Desalin. Water Treat. 57(29): 13829–13829.

  • López-Doval J.C. Barata C. Díez S. 2015 El uso de organismos como indicadores de la contaminación y evaluación del riesgo sobre el ecosistema acuático en el embalse de Flix: Catalunya NE de España (The use of organisms as indicators of pollution and risk assessment on the aquatic ecosystem in the Flix reservoir: Catalunya NE Spain) [in:] Pompêo M. Moschini-Carlos V. Nishimura P.Y. Cardoso-Silva S. López-Doval J.C. (eds) Ecologia de reservatórios e interfaces (Ecology of reservoirs) Instituto de Biociências USP São Paulo: 1–32 (in Portuguese).

  • Lopez P. Marcé R. Ordoñez J. Urrutia I. Armengol J. 2009 Sedimentary phosphorus in a cascade of five reservoirs (Lozoya River Central Spain) Lake Reserv. Manage. 25(1): 39–48.

  • Lorenzen C.J. 1967 Determination of chlorophyll and pheo-pigments: spectrophotometric equations Limnol. Oceanogr. 12(2): 343–346.

  • Mackereth F.J.H. Heron J. Talling J.F. 1978 Water analysis: some revised methods for limnologists Freshwater Biological Assn. Ambleside 121 pp.

  • Margalef R. Planas D. Armengol J. Vidal A. Prat N. Guiset A. Toja J. Estrada M. 1976 Limnología de los embalses españoles (Limnology of the Spanish reservoirs) MOP Publicación No 123 D.G. Obras Hidráulicas MOP Madrid 462 pp (in Spanish).

  • Mariani C.M. Pompêo M. 2008 Potentially bioavailability metals in sediment from a tropical polymictic environment – Rio Grande Reservoir: Brazil J. Soils Sediments 8(5): 284–288.

  • Meguro M. 2000 Métodos em Ecologia (Methods in ecology) USP São Paulo 117 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Molozzi J. França J.S. Araujo T.L.A. Viana T.H. Hughes R.M. Callisto M. 2011 Diversidade de habitats físicos e sua relação com macroinvertebrados bentônicos em reservatórios urbanos em Minas Gerais (Diversity of physical habitat and its relationship with benthic macroinvertebrates in urban reservoirs in Minas Gerais) Iheringia Sér. Zool. 101(3): 191–199 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Moschini-Carlos V. Bortoli S. Pinto E. Nishimura P.Y. Freitas L.G. Pompêo M. Dörr F. 2009 Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin in the Billings Reservoir (São Paulo SP Brazil) Limnetica 28(2): 273–282.

  • Moschini-Carlos V. Freitas L.G. Pompêo M. 2010 Limnological evaluation of water in the Rio Grande and Taquacetuba branches of the Billings Complex (São Paulo Brazil) and management implications Amb-Agua 5(3): 47–59.

  • Navarro E. Bacardit M. Caputo L. Palau T. Armengol J. 2006 Limnological characterization and flow patterns of a three-coupled reservoir system and their influence on Dreissena polymorpha populations and settlement during the stratification period Lake Reserv. Manage. 22(4): 293–302.

  • Newman M.M. Dixon P.M. Looney B.B. Pinder J.E. 1989 Estimating mean and variance for environmental samples with below detection limit observations Water Resour. Bull. 25(4): 905–916.

  • Nishimura P.Y. Meirinho P.A. Moschini-Carlos V. Pompêo M. 2014 Does the plankton community follow the horizontal water quality heterogeneity in a tropical urban reservoir (Guarapiranga reservoir São Paulo Brazil)? Limnetica 33(2): 263–280.

  • Nogueira M.G. 2000 Phytoplankton composition dominance and abundance as indicators of environmental compartmentalization in Jurumirim Reservoir (Paranapanema River) São Paulo Brazil Hydrobiologia 431(2–3): 115–128.

  • Nogueira M.G. Jorcin A. Vianna N.C. Britto Y.C.T. 2007 Reservatórios em cascata e os efeitos na limnologia e organização das comunidades bióticas (fitoplâncton zooplâncton e zoobentos) – um estudo de caso no rio Paranapanema (SP/PR) (Cascade reservoirs and the effects on limnology and organization of biotic communities (phytoplankton zooplankton and zoobenthos) – a case study on the River Paranapanema (SP/PR)) [in:] Nogueira M.G. Henry R. Jorcin A. (eds.) Ecologia de reservatórios: impactos potenciais ações e manejo de sistemas em cascata (Reservoir ecology: potential impacts actions and management of cascade systems) RiMa Editora São Carlos: 83–125 (in Portuguese).

  • Pedrazzi F.J.M. Conceição F.T. Sardinha D.S. Moschini-Carlos V. Pompêo M. 2013 Spatial and temporal quality of water in the Itupararanga Reservoir Alto Sorocaba Basin (SP) Brazil J. Water Resour. Prot. (JWARP) 5(1): 64–71.

  • Pereira C.A.A.O. 2013 Plano Diretor de aproveitamento de recursos hídricos para a Macrometrópole Paulista no Estado de São Paulo. Relatório Final – Volume I (Master Plan for the use of water resources for the Macrometropole Paulista in the State of São Paulo. Final Report – Volume I) Departamento de Águas e Energia Elétrica (DAEE) 195 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Pompêo M. Casas-Ruiz J.P Moschini-Carlos V. Marcé R. Nishimura P.Y. Armengol J. López P. 2015 Chemical elements in superficial sediments of five reservoirs in the Catalonia and Aragon region (Spain): Is there an anthropogenic contribution? [in:] Pompêo M. Moschini-Carlos V. Nishimura P.Y. Cardoso-Silva S. López-Doval J.C. (eds) Ecologia de reservatórios e interfaces (Ecology of reservoirs and interfaces) Instituto de Biociências USP São Paulo: 251–277.

  • Pompêo M. Kawamura P. Moschini-Carlos V. Cardoso-Silva S. Lobo F.L. Meirinho P.A. Bitencourt M.D. Meirelles S.T. 2015 Heterogeneidade espacial horizontal da qualidade da água no reservatório Rio Grande Complexo Billings São Paulo Brasil (Horizontal spatial heterogeneity of water quality in the Rio Grande Reservoir Billings Complex) [in:] Pompêo M. Moschini-Carlos V. Nishimura P.Y. Cardoso-Silva S. López-Doval J.C. (eds) Ecologia de reservatórios e interfaces (Ecology of reservoirs and interfaces) Instituto de Biociências USP São Paulo: 82–95 (in Portuguese).

  • Pompêo M. Moschini-Carlos V. 2012 O abastecimento de água e o esgotamento sanitário: propostas para minimizar os problemas no Brasil (Water supply and sanitary sewage: proposals to minimize problems in Brazil) [in]: Rosa A.H. Fraceto L.F. Moschini-Carlos V. (eds.) Meio ambiente e sustentabilidade (Environment and sustainability) Bookman Companhia Editora Porto Alegre: 41–61 (in Portuguese).

  • Pompêo M. Padial P.R. Mariani C.F. Cardoso-Silva S. Moschini-Carlos V. Silva D.C.V.R. Brazil T.C.P. Brandimarte A.L. 2013 Biodisponibilidade de metais no sedimento de um reservatório tropical urbano (reservatório Guarapiranga São Paulo Brasil): há toxicidade potencial e heterogeneidade espacial? (Bioavailability of metals in the sediment of an urban tropical reservoir (Guarapiranga reservoir São Paulo Brazil): is there potential toxicity and spatial heterogeneity?) Geochim. Bras. 27(2): 104–119 (in Portuguese English summary).

  • Qin B.Q. Gao G. Zhu G.W. Zhang Y.L. Song Y.Z. Tang X.M. Xu H. Deng J.M. 2013 Lake eutrophication and its ecosystem response Chin. Sci. Bull. 58(9): 961–970.

  • Rodgher S. Espíndola E.L.G. Rocha O. Fracácio R. Pereira R.H.G. Rodrigues M.H.S. 2005 Limnological and ecotoxicological studies in the cascades of reservoirs in the Tietê River (São Paulo Brazil) Braz. J. Biol. 65(4): 697–710.

  • Sabater S. Guasch H. Romaní A. Muñoz I. 2002 The effect of biological factors on the efficiency of river biofilms in improving water quality Hydrobiologia 469(1–3): 149–156.

  • Santos S. Oliveira L.C. Santos A. Rocha J.C. Rosa H.A. 2012 Poluição aquática (Water pollution) [in:] Rosa A.H. Fraceto L.F. Moschini-Carlos V. (eds.) Meio ambiente e sustentabilidade (Environment and sustainability) Bookman Companhia Editora Porto Alegre: 11–40.

  • [SEADE] Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Statewise System for Data Analysis Foundation) 2015 Portal de Estatísticas do Estado de São Paulo. Retrieved from http://produtos.seade.gov.br/produtos/perfil_regional/ (Accessed 23 November 2015).

  • Smith W.S. Espíndola E.L.G. Rocha O. 2014 Environmental gradient in reservoirs of the medium and low Tietê River: limnological diferences through the habitat sequence Acta Limnol. Bras. 26(1): 73–88.

  • Sodré F.F. Locatelli M.A.F. Jardim W.F. 2010 Occurrence of emerging contaminants in Brazilian drinking waters: a sewage-to-tap issue Water Air Soil Poll. 206(1–4): 57–67.

  • Stevenson R.J. 1996 An introduction to algal ecology in freshwater benthic habitats [in:] Stevenson R.J. Bothwell M.L. Lowe R.L. (eds.) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems Academic Press San Diego: 3–30.

  • Straškraba M. 1990 Limnological particularities of multiple reservoir series Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 33: 677–678.

  • Straškraba M. Tundisi J.G. Duncan A. 1993 State-of-the-art of reservoir limnology and water quality management [in:] Straškraba M. Tundisi J.G. Duncan A. (eds.) Comparative limnology and water management Kluwer Dordrecht: 213–288.

  • Straškraba M. Tundisi J.G. 2013 Aspectos técnicos da construção de reservatórios (Technical aspects of reservoir construction) Oficina de Textos São Carlos 300 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Tundisi J.G. Matsumura-Tundisi T. 2008 Limnologia (Limnology) Oficina de Textos São Paulo 632 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Tundisi J.G. Matsumura-Tundisi T. 2010 Ciência tecnologia inovação e recursos hídricos: Oportunidades para o futuro (Science technology innovation and water resources: Opportunities for the future) [in:] Bicudo C.E.M. Tundisi J.G. Scheuenstuhl M.C.B. (eds) Águas do Brasil: Análises estratégicas (Waters of Brazil: Strategic analysis) Academia Brasileira de Ciencias – Instituto de Botânica São Paulo: 179–197.

  • Tundisi J.G. Rocha O. Matsumura-Tundisi T. Braga B. 1998 Reservoir management in South America Int. J. Water Resour. D. 14(2): 141–155.

  • [UNEP-IETC] United Nations Environment Programme – International Environment Tecnology Centre 2001 Planejamento e gerenciamento de lagos e represas: uma abordagem integrada ao problema da eutrofização (Planning and management of lakes and reservoirs: An integrated approach to eutrophication) RiMa Editora São Carlos 385 pp (in Portuguese).

  • Valderrama J.C. 1981 The simultaneous analysis of total nitrogen and phosphorus in natural waters Mar. Chem. 10(2): 109–122.

  • Vallentyne J.R. 1978 Introducción a la Limnología (Introduction to Limnology) Ed. Omega Barcelona 180 pp (in Spanish).

  • Vidović M.M. Rodić M.N. Vidović M.U. Trajković I.S. Jovanić S.Z. 2015 Assessment of the trophic status by monitoring of reservoir’s water quality J. Water Resour. Prot. (JWARP) 7(1): 1–13.

  • Wetzel R.G. Likens G.E. 1991 Limnological analyses Springer-Verlag New York: 391 pp.

  • Whately M. Cunha P. 2007 Cantareira 2006: Um olhar sobre o maior manancial de água da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Resultados do diagnóstico socioambiental participativo do Sistema Cantareira Instituto Socioambiental (ISA) São Paulo 67 pp (in Portuguese). Retrieved from http://www.socioambiental.org/banco_imagens/pdfs/10289.pdf. [Accessed 10 October 2015].

  • Xu H. Paerl H.W. Qin B. Zhu G. Gao G. 2010 Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs control phytoplankton growth in eutrophic Lake Taihu China Limnol. Oceanogr. 55(1): 420–443.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 367 223 13
PDF Downloads 277 182 9