Selected anionic and cationic surface active agents: case study on the Kłodnica sediments

Open access

Abstract

Surface active agents (surfactants) are a group of chemical compounds, which are used as ingredients of detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics and functional products. After use, wastes containing surfactants or their degradation products are discharged to wastewater treatment plants or directly into surface waters. Due to their specific properties of SAAs, compounds are able to migrate between different environmental compartments such as soil, sediment, water or even living organisms and accumulate there. Surfactants can have a harmful effect on living organisms. They can connect with bioactive molecules and modify their function. Additionally, they have the ability to migrate into cells and cause their damage or death. For these reasons investigation of individual surfactants should be conducted. The presented research has been undertaken to obtain information about SAA contamination of sediment from the River Kłodnica catchment caused by selected anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS C10-C13)) and cationic (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium (BDMA-C12-16), alkyl trimethyl ammonium (DTMA), hexadecyl piridinium chloride (HP) chlorides) surfactants. This river flows through an area of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region where various companies and other institutions (e.g. coal mining, power plants, metallurgy, hospitals) are located. To determine their concentration the following analytical tools have been applied: accelerated solvent extraction– solid phase extraction – high performance liquid chromatography – UV-Vis (anionic SAAs) and conductivity (cationic SAAs) detectors. In all sediments anionic SAAs have been detected. The concentrations of HTMA and BDMA-C16 in tested samples were higher than other cationic analytes. Generally, levels of surfactants with longer alkyl chains were higher and this observation can confirm their higher susceptibility to sorption on solid surfaces.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Cserháti T. Forgács E. Oros G. 2002 Biological activity and environmental impact of anionic surfactants Environ. Int. 28(5): 337–348.

  • DiCorcia A. Samperi R. Belloni A. Marcomini A. Zanette M. Lemr K. Cavalli L. 1994 LAS pilot study at the “Roma-Nord” sewage treatment plant and in the Tiber river Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. 71: 467–475.

  • Drąg M. Zimnol J. 2014 The evaluation of the state of environment under a strong human impact on the basis of SWOT analysis AIP Conference Proceedings 1618: 281–284.

  • Działoszyńska-Wawrzkiewicz M. 2007 Koncepcja przyrodniczo-społecznego wykorzystania zalewisk na przykładzie zlewni rzeki Kłodnicy (The concept of natural and social use of flooding areas on the example of Kłodnica River) [typescript] Instytut Ekologii Terenów Uprzemysłowionych Katowice 47 pp (in Polish).

  • Ferrer I. Furlong E.T. 2002 Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples Anal. Chem. 74(6): 1275–1280.

  • Fuerstenau M.C. Jameson G. Yoon R.H. (eds) 2007 Froth flotation: a century of innovation Society of Mining Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Littleton 879 pp.

  • Hamerla A. Pierzchała Ł. 2016 Ocena warunków hydromorfologicznych zurbanizowanych dolin rzecznych na przykładzie zlewni Kłodnicy (Hydromorphological assessment of urban river valleys of the Kłodnica catchment) Prz. Nauk. Inż. Kształt. Środ. 25(1): 83–99.

  • Hampel M. Canário J. Branco V. Vale C. Blasco J. 2009 Environmental levels of Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal): environmental implications Environ. Monit. Assess. 149: 151–161.

  • Hermanowicz W. Dojlido J. Dożańska W. Koziorowski B. Zerbe J. 1999 Fizyczno-chemiczne badanie wody i ścieków (Physical-chemical examination of water and wastewater) Wydaw. Arkady Warszawa 556 pp (in Polish).

  • Ivanković T. Hrenović J. 2010 Surfactants in the environment Arh. Hig. Rada Toksikol. 61: 95–110.

  • Konopacka Ż. 2005 Flotacja mechaniczna (Mechanical flotation) Ofic. Wydaw. PWroc Wrocław 84 pp (in Polish).

  • Lach R. Magdziorz A. Maksymiak-Lach H. 2004 Zmiany jakości wód powierzchniowych zlewni Górnej Odry w wyniku restukturyzacji górnictwa węgla kamiennego (Changes in the quality of surface waters of Upper Oder catchment area as a result of restructuring of coal mining) Pr. Nauk. GIG “Górnictwo i Środowisko” 3: 53–70 (in Polish).

  • Li X.L. Brownawell B.J. 2010 Quaternary ammonium compounds in urban estuarine sediment environments e a class of contaminants in need of increased attention? Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 7561–7568.

  • Magdziorz A. Lach R. 2001 Zrzuty wód kopalnianych do wód powierzchniowych dorzeczy Odry i Wisły w województwie śląskim – charakterystyka stanu i prognozy (Discharge of mine waters into surface waters of the Odra and Vistula river basins in the Slaskie voivodeship – characteristics of the state and forecasts) Dokumentacja nr 42207441-344 GIG Katowice (in Polish).

  • Martinez-Carballo E. Gonzalez-Barreiro C. Sitka A. Kreuzinger N. Scharf S. Gans O. 2007 Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Part II. Application to sediment and sludge samples in Austria Environ. Pollut.146(2): 543–547.

  • McDonell G. Russel A.D. 1999 Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity action and resistance Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12(1): 147–179.

  • Myers D. 2005 Surfactant science and technology Wiley-Interscience New Jersey 380 pp.

  • Namieśnik J. (ed.) 1992 Metody instrumentalne w kontroli zanieczyszczeń środowiska (Instrumental methods for controlling environmental pollution) Wydaw. PGdań. Gdańsk 407 pp (in Polish).

  • Nelson R.C. 1982 Application of surfactants in the petroleum industry J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 59(10): 823A–826A.

  • Nocoń W. Kostecki M. Kozłowski J. 2006 Charakterystyka hydrochemiczna rzeki Kłodnicy (Hydrochemistry of the Kłodnica River) Ochr. Śr. 28(3): 39–44 (in Polish).

  • Nomura Y. Ikebukuro K. Yokoyama K. Takeuchi T. Arikawa Y. Ohno S. Karube I. 1998 Application of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate biosensor to river water monitoring Biosens. Bioelectron. 13(9): 1047–1053.

  • [OECD] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2000 Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) Initial Assessment Report for 20th SIDS International Assessment Meeting (SIAM) The CLER Review 10(1): 1–104.

  • Ogonowski J. Tomaszkiewicz-Potępa A. 1999 Związki powierzchniowo czynne (Surfactants) Wydaw. PKrak. Kraków 159 pp (in Polish).

  • Olkowska E. Polkowska Ż. Namieśnik J. 2011 Analytics of surfactants in the environment: Problems and challenges Chem. Rev. 111(9): 5667–5700.

  • Olkowska E. Polkowska Ż. Namieśnik J. 2012 Analytical procedures for the determination of surfactants in environmental samples Talanta 88: 1–13.

  • Olkowska E. Polkowska Ż. Namieśnik J. 2013 A solid phase extraction–ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples Talanta 116: 210–216.

  • Olkowska E. Ruman M. Polkowska Ż. 2014 Occurrence of surface active agents in the environment J. Anal. Methods Chem. Article ID 769708 15 pp.

  • Petrovic M. Fernández-Alba A.R. Borrull F. Marce R.M. González M.E. Barceló D. 2002 Occurrence and distribution of nonionic surfactants their degradation products and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in coastal waters and sediments in Spain Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21(1): 37–46.

  • Plaza S. Margielewski L. 2009 Surfactants Lubricating Oil Additives [in:] Luo J. Meng Y. Shao T. Zhao Q. (eds) Advanced Tribology Springer Berlin-Heidelberg: 920–921.

  • Rapaport R.A. Eckhoff W.S. 1990. Monitoring linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the environment: 1973-1986 Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9(10): 1245–1257.

  • Sablayrolles C. Montréjaud-Vignoles M. Silvestre J. Treilhou M. 2009 Trace Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates: Application in Artificially Polluted Soil – Carrots System Inter. J. Anal. Chem. Article ID 404836 6 pp.

  • Schramm L.L. Stasiuk E.N. Marangoni D.G. 2003 Surfactants and their applications Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C Phys. Chem. 99: 3–48.

  • Sekhon B.S. 2013 Surfactants: Pharmaceutical and medicinal aspects J. Pharm. Technol. Res. Manage. 1: 11–36.

  • Staszewski R. (ed.) 1990 Kontrola chemicznych zanieczyszczeń środowiska. Podstawy teoretyczne z ćwiczeniami laboratoryjnymi (Control of the chemical pollution of the environment. Theoretical basics with laboratory exercises) Wydaw. PG. Gdańsk 214 pp (in Polish).

  • Strugała-Wilczek A. Bebek M. Rodak A 2013 Ocena przydatności ciągłej analizy przepływowej do badania anionowych i niejonowych substancji powierzchniowo czynnych w próbkach wód i ścieków (Evaluation of the usefulness of continuous flow analysis for the study of anionic surfactants and nonionic surfactants in water and sewage samples) Inż. Ekolog. 32: 172–180 (in Polish English summary).

  • Sun H. F. Takata A. Hata N. Kasahara I. Taguchi S. 2003 Transportation and fate of cationic surfactant in river water J. Environ. Monitor. 5(6): 891–895.

  • Tabor C.F. Barber L.B. 1996 Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the Mississippi River Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 161–171.

  • Traverso-Soto J.M. González-Mazo E. Lara-Martín P.A 2012 Analysis of surfactants in environmental samples by chromatographic techniques [in:] de Azevedo Calderon L. (ed.) Chromatography – The most versatile method of chemical analysis InTech Rijeka: 187–216.

  • Trochim M. 2006 Przekształcenie rzeźby terenu i stosunków wodnych na obszarze zlewni Kłodnicy (The transformation of the terrain and water conditions in the Kłodnica catchment) [in:] Machowski R. Ruman M. (eds) Z badań nad wpływem antropopresji na środowisko. T. 7 (Research on the impact of antropopression on the environment. Vol. 7) Wydaw. WNoZ UŚ Sosnowiec: 151–161.

  • Utsunomiya A. Watanuki T. Matsushita K. Tomita I. 1997 Toxic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate quaternary alkylammonium chloride and their complexes on Dunaliella sp. and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16(6): 1247–1254.

  • Ying G.G. 2006 Fate behavior and effects of surfactants and their degradation products in the environment Environ. Inter. 32(3): 417–431.

  • Zieliński R. 2009 Surfaktanty. Budowa właściwości zastosowania (Surfactants. Structure properties applications) Wydaw. Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu Poznań 651 pp (in Polish).

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 238 134 3
PDF Downloads 156 117 6