Changes in the trophic status of lakes in the Suwałki Landscape Park (NE Poland)

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Abstract

Summer field research and chemical analyses in 2015 provided the basis for the presentation of the trophic status of waters of 28 lakes of the Suwałki Landscape Park in NE Poland, located in the catchment of the River Neman, in the Natura 2000 area – Ostoja Jeleniewska. Lakes Hańcza and Szurpiły are currently mesotrophic ecosystems. The remaining lakes are moderately eutrophic, while four lakes in the group, in addition to anaerobic hypolimnion, have infertile epilimnion similar to that of mesotrophic lakes. Lake Hańcza shows considerable multiannual dynamics of water fertility, periodically reaching a status approximate to eutrophy. In Lake Szurpiły and the majority of smaller lakes of the Suwałki Landscape Park, reduced precipitation in 2015 resulted in an inconsiderable decrease in trophic status. The lakes are under the strong influence of their catchment area, as confirmed by statistically significant correlations between TSI and the Ohle and Schindler ratios. Lakes Kluczysko and Kopane currently remain the most fertile lakes in the Park. Unless rapidly developing cattle breeding leads to excessive fertilisation of waters in the catchment, the forecasted variability of weather conditions during global climate transformations will lead to fluctuations in the fertility of the majority of the analysed lakes at the threshold of meso- and eutrophy. A hypothesis is also stated regarding the considerable role of groundwater alimentation and short retention time in the maintenance of higher than average resources of silica in limnic waters.

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