Comparative studies of underwater light regimes in lakes of the East-Suwałki Lakeland

Open access


Secchi disc transparency and optical properties of water, based on measurements for downward irradiance using an underwater radiometer PER-700, were studied in 23 lakes of the Suwałki Landscape Park (SLP) in 2013. Measurements of optically significant constituents of water were also performed (YSI EXO-2) and analysed. Data on water transparency from published studies were used to assess long-term changes in the optical conditions in the deepest water body in Poland – Lake Hańcza. In terms of the optical characteristics of the water, the analysed SLP lakes can essentially be divided into two distinct groups representing different optical lake types. These are optical categories of lakes most common in Poland, namely types II and IIIb. Regional equations describing the relationships between the attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance as well as optically significant constituents of water were developed. The optical properties of the SLP lakes are mainly affected by suspended solids, mostly phytoplankton. Interannual fluctuations in Sechi disc transparency, as well as the attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance and other apparent optical properties of mid-summer water calculated from it, are determined by the spring thermal conditions and intensity of phytoplankton blooms during this period. Application of the attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance as a criterion for the assessment of the trophic status of the SLP lakes indicates that these are generally eutrophic lakes. The largest and deepest lakes of the park, however, are mesotrophic. Lake Hańcza is currently in the stage of α-mesotrophy.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abbot M.R. Denman K.L. Powell T.M. Richerson P.J. Richards R.C. Goldman C.R. 1984 Mixing and the dynamics of the deep chlorophyll maximum in Lake tahoe Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(4): 862–878.

  • Borowiak D. 2009 Optical classification of lakes in northern Poland Limnol. Rev. 9(4):141–152.

  • Borowiak D. 2011 Właściwości optyczne wód jeziornych Pomorza (Optical properties of the Pomeranian lake waters) Wydaw. UG Gdańsk 275 pp. (in Polish English summary).

  • Borowiak D. 2014 optical properties of Polish lakes: the Secchi disc transparency Limnol. Rev. 14(3): 131–144.

  • Borowiak D. Nowiński K. Borowiak M. Grabowska K. 2016 Abiotic environment of lobelia lake ecosystems [in:] Bociąg K. Borowiak D. (eds) Lobelia lakes in the second decade of the XXI century Wydaw. UG Gdańsk: 19–50 (in Polish English summary).

  • Camacho A. 2006 On the occurrence and ecological features of deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) in Spanish stratified lakes Limnetica 25(1–2): 453–478.

  • Czeczuga B. Grądzki F. 1970 Primary production in the oligotrophic Lake Hańcza Ekol. Pol. 18(17): 383–392.

  • Czeczuga B. 1994 Studies of aquatic fungi. 17. Aquatic fungi of Lake Hancza in the Suwalki Scenic Park and of some adjacent lakes [northeastern Poland] Acta Hydrobiol. 36(3): 371–385.

  • Davies-Colley R.J. Vant W.M. Smith D.G. 2003 Colour and clarity of natural waters. Science and management of optical water quality Blackburn Press Caldwell 310 pp.

  • Faraś-Ostrowska B. Lange W. 1998 Przezroczystość wody jako miara nasilenia eutrofizacji jezior (Water transparency as a measure of the intensity of lake eutrophication) [in:] Lange W. Borowiak D. (eds) Zagrożenia degradacyjne a ochrona jezior Bad. Limnol. 1 KLUG Gdańsk: 181–191 (in Polish).

  • Ficek D. 2013 Właściwości biooptyczne wód jezior Pomorza oraz ich porównanie z właściwościami wód innych jezior i Morza Bałtyckiego (Bio-optical properties of waters in Pomeranian lakes and their comparison to optical properties of other lakes waters and the Baltic Sea) Rozpr. Monogr. 23/2013 PAN IO Sopot 351 pp. (in Polish English summary).

  • Ficek D. Borowiak D. 2016 Właściwości optyczne wód jezior PN “Bory Tucholskie” (Optical properties of lake water in the “Bory Tucholskie” NP) [in:] Choiński A. Kochanowska M. Marszelewski W. (eds) Przyroda abiotyczna Parku Narodowego „Bory Tucholskie” (Abiotic nature in the „Bory Tucholskie” National Park Bogucki Wyd. Nauk. Poznań: 307–329 (in Polish English summary).

  • Górniak A. Szumieluk D. Zielinski P. Suchowolec T. Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk E. 2007 jeziora Suwalskiego Parku Krajobrazowego – aktualna trofia i jakość wód (Lakes of the Suwałki Landscape Park – current trophy and water quality) Mat. Konf. „Parki krajobrazowe w krajowym systemie ochrony obszarowej” Szelment 28–29 września 2006 Turtul 31–36 (in Polish).

  • Górniak A Więcko A. Karpowicz M. 2016 Changes in the trophic status of lakes in the Suwałki Landscape Park (NE Poland) Limnol. Rev. 16(4): 221–227.

  • Howard-Williams C. Vincent W.F. 1984 Optical properties of New Zealand lakes 1: Attenuation scattering and a comparision between downwelling and scalar irradiances Arch. Hydrobiol. 99: 318–330.

  • Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk E. Zieliński P. Grabowska M. Ejsmont-Karabin J. Karpowicz M. Więcko A. 2014 The trophic status of Suwałki Landscape Park lakes based on selected parameters (NEPoland) Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(8): 5101–5121.

  • Kalff J. 2003 Limnology. Inland water ecosystems Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River 592 pp.

  • Kirk J.T.O. 1996 Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystem Cambridge University Press Cambridge 509 pp.

  • Koenings J.P. Edmundson J.A. 1991 Secchi disk and photometer estimates of light regimes in Alaskan lakes: Effects of yellow color and turbidity Limnol. Oceanogr. 36(1): 91–105.

  • Kondracki J. 1994 Geografia Polski. Mezoregiony fizycznogeograficzne (Physical geography of Poland. Physicogeographical mesoregions) Wydaw. PWN Warszawa 340 pp. (in Polish).

  • Koźmiński Z. 1932 O stosunkach tlenowych w jeziorze Hańcza na Suwalszczyźnie (The oxygen conditions in Lake Hańcza in the Suwałki Region) Arch. Hydrobiol. Ryb. 6: 65–85 (in Polish German summary).

  • Lange W. 1986 Fizyczno-limnologiczne uwarunkowania tolerancji systemów jeziornych Pomorza (Physico-limnological conditioning of the Pomeranian lake systems tolerance) Zesz. Nauk. UG Rozpr. Monogr. 79 Gdańsk 177 pp. (in Polish English summary).

  • Lange W. Maślanka W. Nowiński K. 2003 Physical-limnological manifestations of present transformations of chosen lakes of Suwalskie Lakeland Limnol. Rev. 3: 135–142.

  • Mikulski Z. 1973 Badania promieniowania słonecznego w jeziorach polskich (Studies on the penetration of solar radiation into Polish lakes) Prz. Grofiz. 26(3–4): 291–301 (in Polish English summary).

  • Morris D.P. Zagarese H. Williamson C.E. Balseiro E.G. Hargreaves B.R. Modenutti B. Moeller R. Queimalinos C. 1995 The attenuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(8): 1381–1391.

  • Reinart A. Harlevi A. Arst H. Sipelgas L. 2003 Preliminary optical classification of lakes and coastal waters in Estonia and south Finland J. Sea Res. 49(4): 357–366.

  • Reynolds C.S. 1984 The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton Cambridge Univ. Press Cambridge 384 pp.

  • Reynolds C.S. 1992 Dynamics selection and composition of phytoplankton in relation to vertical structure in lakes Arch. Hydrobiol. 35: 13–31.

  • Richling A. 1985 Regionalizacja fizycznogeograficzna województwa (Physicogeographical regionalization of the voivodeship) [in:] Stasiak A. ed.) Województwo suwalskie. Studia i materiały. Tom 1. (Suwałki Voivodeship. Studies and materials. Vol. 1) Wyd. OBN w Białymstoku Białystok: 169–200 (in Polish).

  • Silsbe G.M. Hecky R.E. Guildford S.J. 2006 Variability of chlorophyll a and photosynthetic parameters in a nutrient-saturated tropical great lake Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(5): 2052–2063.

  • Stangenberg M. 1936 Szkic limnologiczny na tle stosunków hydrochemicznych Pojezierza Suwalskiego. Suchar i Jeziorko jako stadjum przejściowe zanikania jezior (Limnological study against the hydrochemical conditions of the Suwałki Lakeland. Lakes Suchar and Jeziorko as a transitional stage of lake disappearance) Pr. Inst. Bad. Lasów Państw. A 19: 1–85 (in Polish German summary).

  • Stangenberg M. 1937 Charakterystyka limnologiczna jezior grupy Kleszczowickiej i Hańczańskiej na pojezierzu Suwalszczyzny (Limnological characteristics of the Kleszczówek and Hańcza lake groups in the Suwałki Lakeland) Pr. Inst. Bad. Lasów Państw. A 23: 1–17.

  • Stenz E. Mikulski Z. 1951 Pomiary przenikalności promieniowania słonecznego w jeziorach i ich zastosowanie (Studies on the penetration of solar radiation into lakes and their use) Gosp. Wod. 11(12): 441–451 (in Polish).

  • Sterner R.W. Elser J.J. Fee E.J. Guilford S.J. Chrzanowski T.H. 1997 The light:nutrient ratio in lakes: The balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem structure and proces Am. Nat. 150(6): 663–684.

  • Szczepański A. 1961 Charakterystyka limnologiczna jeziora Hańcza (Limnological characteristic of Hańcza lake) Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 9: 9–18 (in Polish).

  • Talling J.F. 1971 The underwater light climate as a controling factor in the production ecology of freshwater phytoplankton Mitt. Int. Verein. Limnol. 19: 214–243.

  • Zdanowski B. Stawecki K. Pyka J.P. 2008 Środowisko abiotyczne jeziora Hańcza (Abiotic environment of Lake Hańcza) [in:] Kozłowski J. Poczyczyński P. Zdanowski B. (red.) Środowisko i ichtiofauna jeziora Hańcza (Environment and ichthyofauna of Lake Hańcza) Wydaw. IRS Olsztyn: 59–73 (in Polish).

  • Zieliński P. Kłoczewska A. Górniak A. 2006 Summer bacterioplankton abundance and biomas in lakes of Suwałki Landscape Park pol. J. Environ. Stud. 15(5): 543–547.

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 144 81 1
PDF Downloads 89 51 0