The aim of the study was to locate and describe groundwater outflows in a selected lake basin. The study hypothesis was based on the fact that, according to the specialist literature, one of the forms of lake water supply is through groundwater outflows. It was also assumed that the lakes of the Kashubian Lake District are characterised by such a form of lake water supply. The time scope of the work included the period from January 2011 to September 2012. The spatial scope of the work included the area of Lake Raduńskie Górne, located in the Kashubian Lake District in north Poland. The research plot was in the north-eastern part of the lake. Office works were aimed at gathering and studying source materials and maps. Cartographic materials were analysed with the use of the MapInfo Professional 9.5. The purpose of the field work was to find the groundwater outflows in the basin of Lake Raduńskie Górne. During the field research diving was carried out in the lake. During the dive audiovisual documentation was conducted using a Nikon D90 camera with Ikelite underwater housing for Nikon D90 and an Ikelite DS 161 movie substrobe, as well as a GoPro HD HERO 2 Outdoor camera. During the project, four groundwater outflows were found. In order to examine these springs audiovisual and photographic documentation was made. To systematise the typology of the discovered springs, new nomenclature was suggested, namely under-lake springs with subtypes: an under-lake slope spring and under-lake offshore spring
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Arfib B. de Marsily G. Ganoulis J. 2002 Coastal kart springs in the Mediterranean basin: study of the mechanisms of saline pollution at the Almyros spring (Crete) observations and modeling Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 173: 245-253.
Choiński A. Ilyin L. Marszelewski W. Ptak M. 2008 Lakes Supplied by Springs: Selected Examples Limnol. Rev. 8(4): 145-150.
Choiński A. Ptak M. 2012 Variation in the ice cover thickness on Lake Samołęskie as a result of underground water supply Limnol. Rev. 12(3): 133-138.
Dash R. R. Mehrotra I. Kumar P. Grischek T. 2008 Lake bank filtration at Nainital India: water-quality evaluation Hydrogeol. J. 16(6): 1089-1099.
Engstrom D.R. Swain E.B. 1986 The chemistry of lake sediments in time and space Hydrobiologia 143(1): 37-44.
Fetter C.W. 2010 Applied Hydrogeology Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs p. 598.
Hiscook K. 2009 Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice Wiley New York p. 377.
Kaleris V. 2006 Submarine groundwater discharge: Effects of hydrogeology and of near shore surface water bodies J. Hydrol. 325(1-4): 96-117.
Kidmose J. 2010 Groundwater - Surface water Interaction: From Catchment to Interfaces at Lakes and Streams [dissertation] Faculty of Science Univ. Copenhagen p. 25. Retrieved from http://www.fiva.dk/doc/thesis/Kidmose_PhD.pdf.