The character of phenomena related to freezing depends on macroscale factors and mainly on thermal conditions, but local conditions can also be of great importance in shaping the course of these phenomena. Building of ice cover can be substantially different even for neighbouring lakes as a result of different individual features such as, for example, morphometric parameters. In this study the variation in the thickness of ice cover on Lake Samołęskie (29 ha) localised in western Poland, is analysed. According to measurements performed the differences in the thickness of ice cover was significant as it varied from 20 to 33 cm. A characteristic feature was that along the west bank of the lake the ice cover was thinner and its thickness increased towards the east. Analysis of the hydrogeological data revealed that this phenomenon is related to the supply of water to the lake basin by efficient water-carrying formations. The influx of water affects the bottom layer of the ice cover. This effect is aggravated by the fact that the water is supplied under elevated pressure as evidenced by the presence of a polynia of about 10 m in diameter, over the deepest (over 20 metres deep) site in the lake. The polynia is never frozen, even during the coldest winters. The specific features of the lake illustrate the influence of local geological conditions on the character of processes taking place in lakes in general.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Choiński A. 2007 Limnologia fizyczna Polski (Physical limnology of Poland) Wyd. Nauk. UAM Poznań p. 547 (in Polish).
Choiński A. Ilyin L Marszelewski W. Ptak M. 2008 Lakes Supplied by Springs: Selected Examples Limnol. Rev. 8(4): 145-150.
[IIF] Institute of Inland Fisheries in Olsztyn 1961 Bathymetric map of Lake Samołęskie Olsztyn.
Kettle A.J. Hughes C. Unazi G.A. Birch L. Mohie-El-Din H. Jones M.R. 2012 Role of groundwater exchange on the energy budget and seasonal stratification of a shallow temperate lake J. Hydrol. 470-471: 12-27.
Kondracki J. 1987 Geografia fizyczna Polski (Physical Geography of Poland) PWN Warszawa p. 464 (in Polish).
Pękacki S. Ziółkowski M. 1985 Mapa Hydrogeologiczna Polaki 1:200000 arkusz 25-Piła (Hydrogeological Map of Poland sheet 25-Piła) Wyd. Geol. Warszawa.
Piekarek-Jankowska. H. 1973 Rola jezior rynnowych w kształtowaniu się odpływu wód podziemnych w górnej i środkowej dolinie Rospudy (Part Played by Groove Lakes in Hydrogeology of the Upper and Middle Rospudy Valley) Biul. Inst. Geol. 277: 23-33 (in Polish).
Ruman M. Rzętała M. 2005 Zróżnicowanie pokrywy lodowej zbiorników zaporowych Turowa i Kozłowa Góra w latach hydrologicznych 1975-1996 (Variety of ice cover of Turowa and Kozłowa Góra Dam water Reservoirs in hydrological years 1975-1996) [in:] Jankowski A.T. Rzętała M. (eds) Jeziora i sztuczne zbiorniki wodne: procesy przyrodnicze oraz znacznie społeczno-gospodarcze (Lakes and artificial water reservoirs: natural processes and socio-economic importance) WNoZ UŚ PTLim PTG o. Katowice Sosnowiec: 189-196 (in Polish English summary).
Sacks L.A. Herman J.S. Konikow L.F. Vela A.L. 1992 Seasonal dynamics of groundwater-lake interactions at Donana National Park Spain J. Hydrol. 136(1-4): 123-154.
Smerdon B.D. Devito K.J. Mendoza C.A. 2005 Interaction of groundwater and shallow lakes on outwash sediments in the sub-humid Boreal Plains of Canada J. Hydrol. 314(1-4): 246-262.
Winter T.C. 1999 Relation of streams lakes and wetlands to groundwater flow systems Hydrogeol. J. 7(1): 28-45.
Yin L. Li Y. Huang J. Dong J. Wang X. 2011 Dynamics of interaction of groundwater and Qigai Lake in the Ordos Plateau P.R. China Proc. of the International Symposium on Water Resource and Environmental Protection (ISWREP 2011 Xi’an 20-22 May). Vol. 1: 319-324.