Simulation of Boundary States of Helicopter Flight

Jarosław Stanisławski 1
  • 1 Łukasiewicz Research Network − Institute of Aviation, , 02-256, Warsaw, Poland


Results of simulation of main rotor blade loads and deformations, which can be generated during boundary states of helicopter flight, are presented. Concerned cases of flight envelope include hover at maximum height, level flight at high velocity, pull-up manoeuvres applying cyclic pitch and mixed collective and cyclic control. The simulation calculations were executed for data of light helicopter with three-bladed articulated rotor. For analysis, the real blades are treated as elastic axes with distributed masses of blade segments. The model of deformable blade allows for out-of-plane bending, in plane bending, and torsion. For assumed flight state of helicopter, the equations of rotor blades motion are solved applying Runge-Kutta method. According to Galerkin method, for each concerned azimuthal position of blade the parameters of its motions are assumed as a combination of considered bending and torsion eigen modes of the blade. The loads of rotor blades generated during flight depend due to velocity of flight, helicopter mass, position of rotor axis in air and deflections of swashplate that correspond to collective and cyclic pitch angle applied to rotor blades. The results of simulations presenting rotor loads and blade deformations are shown in form of time-runs and as plots of rotor-disk distributions. The simulations of helicopter flight states may be useful for prediction the conditions of flight-tests without exceeding safety boundaries or may help to define limitations for manoeuvre and control of helicopter.

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