From Effect to Cause: Deductive Reasoning

Ricardo Tavares da Silva 1
  • 1 Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa

Abstract

According to the traditional view, the following incompatibility holds true: in reasoning, either there is warrant (certainty) or there is novelty. If there is warrant, there is not novelty: that would be the case of deductive reasoning. If there is novelty, there is not warrant: that would be the case of inductive reasoning. Causal reasoning would belong to the second group because there is novelty and, therefore, there is not warrant in it. I argue that this is false: reasoning may have novelty and, nevertheless, be a deductive one. That is precisely what happens in (some) causal reasoning. And I will develop the following line of argumentation: one thing is to warrant that some state of affairs exists and other thing is to warrant that warrant. So we may have correct deductive reasoning without having certainty of that correction, like in some cases of causal reasoning.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aliseda, Atocha. Abductive Reasoning – Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.

  • Aristotle. The Categories/On Interpretation/Prior Analytics. Edited by Harold Cook and Hugh Tredennick. London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1970.

  • Bacon, Francis. The New Organon. Edited by Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

  • Boole, George. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. London: Walton and Maberly, 1854.

  • Copi, Irving, Cohen, Carl and McMahon, Kenneth. “Causal Reasoning”. In Introduction to Logic, edited by Copi, Irving, Cohen, Carl and McMahon, Kenneth. Edinburgh: Pearson New International, 2014.

  • Downing, P.B.. “Conditionals, Impossibilities and Material Implications”. Analysis, Vol. 35, No. 3 (1975): 84–91.

  • Edgington, Dorothy, “Indicative Conditionals”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/conditionals/>

  • Frege, Gottlob. Collected Papers on Mathematics, Logic and Philosophy. Edited by Brian McGuiness. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984.

  • Hausman, Alan, Kahane, Howard and Tidman, Paul. Logic and Philosophy – A Modern Introduction. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010.

  • Hempel, C.G.. “Aspects of Scientific Explanation”. In Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. New York: The Free Press, 1965, 331–496.

  • Hempel, C.G. and Oppenheim, P.. “Studies in the Logic of Explanation”. Philosophy of Science 62, 1948, 135–175.

  • Horn, Laurence R., “Contradiction”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/contradiction/>.

  • Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature. Edited by L.A. Selby-Bigge. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

  • Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter Millican. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

  • Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated and Edited by Paul Guyer and Allen Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

  • Lewis, C.I.. A Survey of Symbolic Logic. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1918.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning”. Mind, Vol. 5, N.º 17 (1880): 45–60.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (II)”. Mind, Vol. 6, N.º 24 (1897): 493–510.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (III)”. Mind, Vol. 9, N.º 33 (1900): 75–84.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (IV)”. Mind. Vol. 11, N.º 43 (1902): 352–368.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (V)”. Mind. Vol. 12, N.º 47 (1903): 355–364.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (VI)”. Mind. Vol. 14, N.º 53 (1905): 74–81.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (VII)”. Mind. Vol. 14, N.º 55 (1905): 390–397.

  • MacColl, H.. “Symbolical Reasoning (VIII)”. Mind. Vol. 15, N.º 60 (1906): 504–518.

  • MacColl, H.. Symbolic Logic and its Applications. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1906.

  • Peirce, Charles Sanders. “Pragmatism as the Logic of Abduction”. In The Essential Peirce – Vol. 2. Edited by the Peirce Edition Project. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1931.

  • Priest, Graham. Lógica. Tradução de Célia Teixeira. Lisboa: Temas e Debates, 2002.

  • Putnam, Hilary. Philosophy of Logic. New York: Routledge, 2010.

  • Sanford, David. If P, Then Q: Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning. London: Routledge, 1989.

  • Scriven, Michael. Explanations, Predictions and Laws. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962.

  • Stuart Mill, John. “A System of Logic – Ratiocinative and Inductive”. In Collected Works of John Stuart Mill – Vol. VII. Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1974.

  • Tarski, Alfred. “On the Concept of Logical Consequence”. In Logic, Semantics, Mathematics – Papers from 1923 to 1938. Translated by J.H. Woodger. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.

  • Von Wright, Georg Henrik. An Essay in Modal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1951.

  • Whitehead, A.N., and Russell, Bertrand. Principia Mathematica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

  • Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tratado Lógico-Filosófico/Investigações Lógicas. Tradução de M.S. Lourenço. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2011.

  • Zilhão, António. Lógica – 40 Lições de Lógica Elementar. Lisboa: Edições Colibri, 2001.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search