Permissão Para Degradar: Uma Análise Crítica Dos Biodiversity Offsets Nas Práticas Conservacionistas

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Resumo

A conservação da biodiversidade tornou-se um compromisso inquestionável diante do seu papel inexorável para a manutenção da vida na Terra. Apesar do consensual compromisso em sustentá-la, as razões pelas quais fazê-lo ainda são alvo de discussões e controvérsias. Que valores devem reger sua proteção? Contudo, a conservação da biodiversidade está cada vez mais voltada para um lado objetivo-econômico, na qual a natureza é marginal aos interesses que parecem mais evidentes: a eficiência econômica. Esse artigo faz uma reflexão sobre os esquemas de biodiversity offsets, instrumentos cujo objetivo é a compensação pelos danos à biodiversidade provocados pelas atividades de desenvolvimento; e sobre a mudança nos valores da conservação da biodiversidade que tais instrumentos tendem a provocar. Uma mudança discursiva, institucional, técnica e material que altera o sentido de se fazer conservação e a relação humana com o mundo natural. Essa ‘nova’ perspectiva da conservação revela dilemas éticos fundamentais, e vem se tornando uma estratégia cada vez mais difundida no âmbito das políticas ambientais para a conservação.

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