Time of concentration based infiltration under different soil density, water content, and slope during a steady rainfall

Open access

Abstract

Time of concentration, Tc, is defined as time elapsed from the beginning of rainfall infiltrated into soil layer until it reaches a constant infiltration rate (fc) which is indicated an equilibrium subsurface flow rate. In hydrological view, time of concentration plays a significant role in elaboration of transformation of rainfall into runoff in a watershed. The aims of this research are to define influence of soil density and soil water content in determining time of concentration using infiltration concept based on water balance theory, and to find out the effect of land slope this time. Watershed laboratory experiment using rainfall simulator was employed to examine time of concentration associated with infiltration process under different slope, soil density and soil water content based on water balance concept. The steady rainfall intensity was simulated using sprinklers which produced 2 dm3∙min−1. Rainfall, runoff and infiltration analysis were carried out at laboratory experiment on soil media with varied of soil density (d) and soil water content (w), where variation of land slopes (s) were designed in three land slopes 2, 3 and 4%. The results show that relationship between soil density and land slope to time of concentration showed a quadratic positive relationship where the higher the soil density address to the longer time of concentration. Moreover, time of concentration had an inverse relationship with soil water content and land slope that means time of concentration decreased when the soil water content increased.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Almeida I.K. Almeida A.K. Gabas S.G. Sobrinho T.A. 2017. Performance of methods for estimating the time of concentration in a watershed of a tropical region. Hydrological Sciences Journal. Vol. 62. Iss. 14 p. 2406–2414. DOI 10.1080/02626667.2017.1384549.

  • Anderson S.H. Ranjith P.U. Seobi T. Garret H.E. 2009. Soil water content and infiltration in agroforestry buffer strips. Agroforestry System. Vol. 75 p. 5–16.

  • Ben-Zvi A. 2012. Detention storage over 2D laboratory watersheds at concentration time. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. Vol. 17 (9) p. 1053–1057.

  • Ben-Zvi A. 2013. Bypassing determination of time of concentration. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. Vol. 18 (12) p. 1674–1683.

  • Beven K. 2004. Robert E. Horton’s perceptual model of infiltration processes. Hydrological Process. Vol. 18 p. 3447–3460.

  • Bharati L. Lee K.H. Isenhart T.M. Schultz R.C. 2002. Soilwater infiltration under crops pasture and established riparian buffer in Midwestern USA. Agroforestry Systems Vol. 56 p. 249–257.

  • Chen C.N. Wong S.W. 1993. Critical rainfall duration for maximum discharge from overland plane. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol. 119 p. 1040–1045.

  • Czyżyk F. Świerkot Z. 2017. Recharging infiltration of precipitation water through the light soil in the absence of surface runoff. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 32 p. 25–30. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2017-0003.

  • Dijcka S.J.E. Asch T.W.J. 2002. Compaction of loamy soils due to tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards and its effect on infiltration in southern France. Soil and Tillage Research. Vol. 63. Iss. 3–4 p. 141–153. DOI 10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00237-9

  • Fox D.M. Bryan R.B. Price A.G. 1997. The influence of slope angle on final infiltration rate for interrill conditions. Geoderma. Vol. 80 p. 181–194.

  • Gholami L. Banasik K. Sadeghi S.H. Darvishan A.K. Hejduk L. 2014. Effectiveness of straw mulch on infiltration splash erosion runoff and sediment in laboratory conditions. Journal of Water and Land Development. Vol. 22 p. 51–60. DOI 10.2478/jwld-2014-0022.

  • Gregory J.H. Dukes M.D. Jones P.H. Miller G.L. 2006. Effect of urban soil compaction on infiltration rate. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Vol. 61. No. 3 p. 117–124.

  • Haghnazari F. Shahgholi H. Feizi M. 2015. Factors affecting the infiltration of agricultural soils. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. Vol. 6. No. 5 p. 21–35.

  • Han Li M. Chibber P. 2008. Overland flow time of concentration on very flat terrains. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. No. 2060 p. 133–140. DOI 10.3141/2060-15.

  • Hjelmfelt A.T. 1978. Influence of infiltration on overland flow. Journal of Hydrology. Vol. 36 p. 179–185.

  • Horton R. Thompson M.L. Mcbride J.F. 1987. Method of estimating the travel time of noninteracting solutes through compacted soil material. Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 51 p. 48–53. DOI 10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100010009x

  • Horton R.E. 1940. An approach toward a physical interpretation of infiltration-capacity. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. Vol. 5 p. 399–417.

  • Lee K.T. Chang C.H. 2005. Incorporating subsurface-flow mechanism into geomorphology-based IUH modeling. Journal of Hydrology. Vol. 311 p. 91–105. DOI 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.01.008.

  • Lima J.L.M.P. 2003. Laboratory experiments on the influence of storm movement on overland flow. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Vol. 28. Iss. 6–7 p. 277–282. DOI 10.1016/S1474-7065(03)00038-X.

  • Liu Q.Q. Singh V.P. 2004. Effect of microtopography slope length and gradient and vegetative cover on overland flow through simulation. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. Vol. 9. No. 5 p. 375–382. DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2004) 9:5(375).

  • Manoj K.C. Fang X. Yi Y.J. Han Li M. Thompson D.B. Cleveland T.G. 2014. Improved time of concentration estimation on overland flow surfaces including low-sloped planes. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. Vol. 19. No. 3 p. 495–508. DOI 10.3141/2060-15.

  • Michailidi E.M. Antoniadi S. Koukouvinos A. Bacchi B. Efstratiadis A. 2018. Timing the time of concentration: shedding light on a paradox. Hydrological Sciences Journal. Vol. 63. Iss. 5 p. 721–740. DOI 10.1080/02626667.2018.1450985.

  • Nassif S.H. Wilson E.M 1975. The influence of slope and rain intensity on runoff and infiltration. Hydrological Sciences Journal. Vol. 20. Iss. 4 p. 539–553. DOI 10.1080/02626667509491586.

  • Pikul J.L. Aase J.K. 1995. Infiltration and soil properties as affected by annual cropping in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal. Vol. 87. Iss. 4 p. 656–662. DOI 10.2134/agronj1995.00021962008700040009x.

  • Sharma K.D. Singh H.P. Pareek O.P. 1983. Rainwater infiltration into a bare loamy sand. Hydrological Sciences Journal. Vol. 28. Iss. 3 p. 417–424.

  • Su D. Fang X. 2004. Numerical modeling and turbulence closure techniques for shallow flows. In: Estimating traveling time of flat terrain by 2-dimensional overland flow model. Eds. H.J. Gerhard S.J.U. Wim. The Netherland. A.A. Balkema Member of Taylor and Francis Group p. 629–635.

  • Suryoputro N. Suhardjono Soetopo W. Suhartanto E. Limantara L.M. 2018. Evaluation of infiltration models for mineral soils with different land uses in the tropics. Journal of Water and Land Development. Vol. 37 (IV–VI) p. 153–160. DOI 10.2478/jwld-2018-0034.

  • Wangemann S.G. Kohl R.A. Molumeli P.A. 2000. Infiltration and percolation influenced by antecedent soil water content and air entrapment. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol. 43. No. 6 p. 1517–1523. DOI 10.13031/2013.3051.

  • Wong S.W. 2005. Assessment of time of concentration formulas for overland flow. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Vol. 131. Iss. 4 p. 383–387. DOI 10.1061/(ASCE) 0733-9437(2005)131:4(383).

  • Yen B.C. Okan A.O. 1983. Effects of soil properties on overland flow and infiltration. Journal of Hydraulic Research. Vol. 21 (2) p. 153–173. DOI 10.1080/00221688309499442.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor
CiteScore 2018: 1.55

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.401
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.389

Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 14 points

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 149 149 27
PDF Downloads 121 121 13