Introduction: Avian reovirus (ARV) infections in poultry populations are reported worldwide. The reovirus belongs to the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of ARV infections in the poultry population based on diagnostic tests performed in 2010–2017.
Material and Methods: Samples of the liver and spleen were collected from sick birds suspected of ARV infection and sent for diagnostics. Isolation was performed in 5–7-day-old SPF chicken embryos infected into the yolk sac with homogenates of internal organs of sick birds. Four primer pairs were used to detect the σNS, σC, σA, and µA ARV RNA gene fragments. A nested PCR was used for the detection of the σNS and σC genes.
Results: In 2010–2017, ARV infection was found in birds from 81 flocks of broiler chickens and/or layers, 8 flocks of slaughter turkeys, and in 4 hatchery embryos at 17–20 days of incubation. The primers used in RT-PCR and nested PCR did not allow effective detection of ARV RNA in all virus-positive samples.
Conclusion: The problem of ARV infections in the poultry population in Poland still persist. The primers used for various ARV segments in RT-PCR and nested PCR did not allow effective detection of RNA in the visceral organs of sick birds. The presented results confirm the necessity of using classical diagnostic methods (isolation in chicken embryos, AGID).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Bayai K., Dandar E., Dorsey K.M., Mato T., Palya V.: The genomic constellation of a novel avian orthoreovirus strain associated with runting stunting syndrome in broilers. Virus Genes 2011, 42, 82–89.
2. Benavente J., Martinez-Costas J.: Avian reovirus: structure and biology. Virus Res 2007, 123, 1005–1019.
3. Goldenberg D., Pasmanik-Chor M., Pirak M., Kass N., Lublin A., Yeheskel A., Heller D., Pitcovski J.: Genetic and antigenic characterization of sigma C protein from avian reovirus. Avian Pathol 2010, 39, 189–199.
4. Jones R.C., Islam M.R., Kelly D.F.: Early pathogenesis of experimental reovirus infection in chickens. Avian Pathol 1989, 2, 239–253.
5. Jones R.C.: Reovirus infections. In: Diseases of Poultry, edited by Swayne D.E., Glisson J.R., McDougald L.R., Nolan L.K., Suarez D.L., Nair V.: Wiley-Blackwell, USA, 2013, pp. 351–373.
6. Kant A., Balk F., Born L., van Roozelaar D., Heijmans J., Gielkens A., ter Huurne A.A.: Classification of Dutch and German avian reoviruses by sequencing the sigma C protein. Vet Res 2003, 34, 203–212.
7. Liu H.J., Lee L.H., Hsiu H.W., Kuo L.C., Liao M.H.: Molecular evolution of avian reovirus: evidence for genetic diversity and reassortment of the S-class genome segments and multiple cocirculating lineages. Virology 2003, 314, 336–349.
8. Markis M., Rosenberger J.K.: Viral arthritis/tenosynovitis and other reovirus infections. In: A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Avian Pathogens. Edited by Williams S.M., OmniPress, Madison, 2016, pp. 303–308.
10. Minta Z., Domańska K., Tomczyk G., Daniel W., Kozaczyński W., Matusiewicz J.: Charakterystyka reowirusów izolowanych z przypadków reowirozy u kurcząt brojlerów. Mat. XI Congress of PTNW, Lublin. 2000, p. 224.
11. Sellers, H. S: Update on Variant Avian Reoviruses Isolated from Clinical Cases of Viral Arthritis/Tenosynovitis in Broilers In: The Poultry Informed Professional, 127 ed. D. o. P. Health, ed. 2013.
12. Songserm T., Zekarias B., van Roozelaar D.J., Kok R.S., Pol J.M., Pijpers A.A., ter Huurne A.A.: Experimental reproduction of malabsorption syndrome with different combinations of reovirus, Escherichia coli, and treated homogenates obtained from broilers. Avian Dis 2002, 46, 87–89.
13. Spackman E., Pantin-Jackwood M., Day J.M., Sellers H.: The pathogenesis of turkey origin reoviruses in turkeys and chickens. Avian Pathol 2005, 34, 291–296.
14. Van der Heide L.: The history of avian reovirus. Avian Dis 2000, 44, 638–641.
15. Woźniakowski G., Samorek-Salamonowicz E., Gaweł A.: Occurrence of reovirus infection in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) in south western Poland. Pol J Vet Sci 2014, 17, 299–305.
16. Yates V.J., Rhee Y.O., Fry D.E., El Mishad A.M., McCornick K.J.: The presence of avian adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses in healthy chickens. Avian Dis 1976, 20, 146–152.
17. Zhang Y., Liu M., Shuidong O., Hu Q.L., Guo D.C., Chen H.Y., Han Z.: Detection and identification of avian, duck, and goose reoviruses by RT-PCR: goose and duck reoviruses are part of the same genogroup in the genus Orthoreovirus. Arch Virol 2006, 151, 1525–1538.
18. Zhong L., Gao L., Liu Y., Li K., Wang M., Qi X., Gao Y., Wang X.: Genetic and pathogenic characterization of 11 avian reovirus isolates from northern China suggests continued evolution of virulence. Sci Rep 2016, 6, 352–371.