Prevalence of antibodies to Aujeszky’s disease virus in wild boar in Poland, between 2011 and 2014: a retrospective study

Abstract

Introduction: Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) infects a wide range of animals, including members of the Suidae family, i.e. domestic and wild pigs, as well as wild boar. Since wild boar are a potential ADV reservoir and a source of infection for domestic pigs, the aim of the study was to evaluate ADV antibody prevalence in the Polish wild boar population, during the years 2011 to 2014.

Material and Methods: Wild boar blood samples were collected during three consecutive hunting seasons; i.e. 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014, and tested for ADV antibodies by ELISA.

Results: ADV antibodies were detected in samples from all tested voivodships. The average seroprevalence reached 32.2%. Seroprevalence, over the examined hunting seasons, was 27.4% in 2011/2012, 32.4% in 2012/2013, and 35.5% in 2013/2014. The highest percentage of seroreagents was detected in four voivodships, situated along the western border of Poland, i.e. Zachodnio-Pomorskie (ZP), Lubuskie (LB), Dolnośląskie (DS), and Opolskie (OP). This area is positively correlated with the highest density of the wild boar population and the highest wild boar hunting bag.

Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that the wild boar population may still pose a threat to domestic pigs, which is of special importance at the final stage of Aujeszky’s disease eradication programme in Poland.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Albina E., Mesplède A., Chenut G., Le Potier M.F., Bourbao G., Le Gal S., Leforban Y.: A serological survey on classical swine fever (CSF), Aujeszky’s disease (AD), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infections in French wild boars from 1991 to 1998. Vet Microbiol 2000, 77, 43–57.

  • 2. Baradel J.M., Barrat J., Blancou J., Boutin J.M., Chastel C., Dannacher G., Delorme D., Gerard Y., Gourreau J.M., Kihm U., Larenaudie B., Le Goff C., Pastoret P.-P., Perreau P., Schwers A., Thiry E., Trap D., Uilenberg G., Vannier P.: Results of a serological survey of wild mammals in France. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 1988, 7, 873–883.

  • 3. Boadella M., Gortázar C., Vicente J., Ruiz-Fons F.: Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky’s disease control in pigs? BMC Vet Res 2012, 8, 7.

  • 4. Ciacci-Zanella J.R., Zanella E.L., Simon N.L., Schiochet M.F., Schaefer R., Silveira S., Piovezan U., Juliano R.S., Okino C.H.: Investigation of pseudorabies virus infection in Brazilian feral swine populations. 22nd International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Jeju, Korea 2012, p. 456.

  • 5. Commission Decision 2008/185/EC of 21 February 2008 on additional guarantees in intra-Community trade of pigs relating to Aujeszky’s disease and criteria to provide information on this disease. OJ L 59, 4.3.2008, p. 19.

  • 6. Corn J.L., Cumbee J.C., Barfoot R., Erickson G.A.: Pathogen exposure in feral swine populations geographically associated with high densities of transitional swine premises and commercial swine production. J Wildl Dis 2009, 45, 713–721.

  • 7. Corn J.L., Stallknecht D.E., Mechlin N.M., Luttrell M.P., Fischer J.R.: Persistence of pseudorabies in feral swine populations. J Wildl Dis 2004, 40, 307–310.

  • 8. Cromwijk W.A.: Serological studies in wild boars in the Veluwe area. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1995, 120, 364–365.

  • 9. Davison A.J.: Herpesvirus systematics. Vet Microbiol 2010, 143, 52–69.

  • 10. Denzin N., Borgwardt J., Freuling C., Müller T.: Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky’s disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Geospatial Health 2013, 8, 203–213.

  • 11. Elbers A.R., Dekkers L.J., van der Giessen J.W.: Sero-surveillance of wild boar in the Netherlands, 1996–1999. Rev Sci Tech 2000, 19, 848–854.

  • 12. Forestry 2014. Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2014, pp. 161–162.

  • 13. Gagrcin M., Circovic D., Orliae C.D.: Wild pigs as a reservoir of Aujeszky’s disease. Microbiologia, Belgrad 1989, 26, 149–152.

  • 14. Hahn E.C., Fadl-Alla B., Lichtensteiger C.A.: Variation of Aujeszky’s disease viruses in wild swine in USA. Vet Microbiol 2010, 143, 45–51.

  • 15. Hahn E.C., Page G.R., Hahn P.S., Gillis K.D., Romero C., Annelli J.A., Gibbs E.P.J.: Mechanisms of transmission of Aujeszky’s disease virus originating from feral swine in the USA. Vet Microbiol 1997, 55, 123–130.

  • 16. Kim J., Lim S.I., Han G.H., Song J.Y., Lee K.W., Hyun B.H.: Serological survey of Aujeszky’s disease in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa) population. 22nd International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Jeju, Korea 2012, p. 463.

  • 17. Lari A., Lorenzi D., Nigrelli D., Brocchi E., Faccini S., Poli A.: Pseudorabies virus in European wild boar from Central Italy. J Wildl Dis 2006, 42, 319–324.

  • 18. Leuenberger R., Boujon P., Thür B., Miserez R., Garin-Bastuji B.: Rüfenacht J., Stärk K.D.C.: Prevalence of classical swine fever, Aujeszky’s disease, and brucellosis in a population of wild boar in Switzerland. Vet Rec 2007, 160, 362–368.

  • 19. Lipowski A., Pejsak Z.: Aujeszky’s disease – a potentially dangerous barrier in international trade of pigs. Życie Wet 2001, 76, 76–79.

  • 20. Lipowski A., Pejsak Z.: Antibody prevalence of pseudorabies virus in feral pigs in Poland. 17th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Ames, USA 2002, vol. 2, p. 223.

  • 21. Mettenleiter T.C., Ehlers B., Müller T., Yoon K.J., Teifke J.P.: Herpesviruses. In: Diseases of Swine, edited by J.J. Zimmerman, L.A. Karriker, A. Ramirez, K.J. Schwartz, G. Stevenson, Wiley – Blackwell, Ames, USA, 2012, pp. 421–446.

  • 22. Regulation of Polish Government of 19 March 2008 concerning introducing Aujeszky’s disease eradication programme. Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, 2008, No. 64, item 397.

  • 23. Montagnaro S., Sasso S., De Martino L., Longo M., Iovane V., Ghiurmino G., Pisanelli D., Nava D., Baldi L., Pagnini U.: Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens on wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy. J Wildl Dis 2010, 46, 316–319.

  • 24. Müller T., Bätza H.-J., Schlüter H., Conraths F.J., Mettenleiter T.C.: Eradication of Aujeszky’s disease in Germany. J Vet Med B 2003, 50, 207–213.

  • 25. Müller T., Hahn E.C., Tottenwitz F., Kramer M., Klupp B.G., Mettenleiter T.C., Freuling C.: Pseudorabies virus in wild swine: a global perspective. Arch Virol 2011, 156, 1691–1705.

  • 26. Müller T., Klupp B.G., Freuling C., Hoffmann B., Mojcicz M., Capua I., Palfi V., Toma B., Lutz W., Ruiz-Fon F., Gortárzar C., Hlinak A., Schaarschmidt U., Zimmer K., Conraths F.J., Hahn E.C., Mettenleiter T.C.: Characterization of pseudorabies virus of wild boar origin from Europe. Epidemiol Infect 2010, 138, 1590–1600.

  • 27. Pannwitz G., Freuling C., Denzin N., Schaarschmidt U., Nieper H., Hlinak A., Burkhardt S., Klopries M., Dedek J., Hoffmann L., Kramer M., Selhorst T., Conraths F.J., Mettenleiter T., Müller T.: A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky’s disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany. Epidemiol Infect 2012, 140, 348–358.

  • 28. Pedersen K., Bevins S.N., Baroch J.A., Cumbee J.C., Chandler S.C., Woodruff B.S., Bigelow T.T., DeLiberto T.J.: Pseudorabies in feral swine in the United States, 2009–2012. J Wildl Dis 2013, 49, 709–713.

  • 29. Roic B., Jemersic L., Terzic S., Keros T., Balatinec J., Florijancic T.: Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia in 2005–06 and 2009–10. J Wildl Dis 2012, 48, 131–137.

  • 30. Romero C.H., Meade P., Santagata J., Gillis K., Lollis G., Hahn E.C., Gibbs E.P.J.: Genital infection and transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in Florida, USA. Vet Microbiol 1997, 55, 131–139.

  • 31. Romero C.H., Meade P.N., Shultz J.E., Chung H.Y., Gibbs E.P., Hahn E.C., Lollis G.: Veneral transmission of pseudorabies viruses indigenous to feral swine. J Wildl Dis 2001, 37, 289–296.

  • 32. Ruiz-Fons F. Vicente J., Vidal D., Höfle U., Villanúa D., Gauss C., Segalés J., Almería S., Montoro V., Gortázar C.: Seroprevalence of six reproductive pathogens in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: the effect on wild boar female reproductive performance. Theriogenology 2006, 65, 731–743.

  • 33. Ruiz-Fons F., Vidal D., Höfle U., Vicente J., Gortázar C.: Aujeszky’s disease virus infection patterns in European wild boar. Vet Microbiol 2007, 120, 241–250.

  • 34. Sattler T., Sailer E., Wodak E., Schmoll F.: Serological detection of emerging viral infections in wild boars from different hunting regions of Southern Germany. Tierärztl Prax 2012, 40, 27–32.

  • 35. Sedlak K., Bartova E., Machova J.: Antibodies to selected viral disease agents in wild boars from the Czech Republic. J Wildl Dis 2008, 44, 777–780.

  • 36. Smith G.: Preferential sexual transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine populations may not account for observed seroprevalence in the USA. Prev Vet Med 2012, 103, 145–156.

  • 37. Steinrigl A., Revilla-Fernández S., Kolodziejek J., Wodak E., Bagó Z., Nowotny N., Schmoll F., Köfer J.: Detection and molecular characterization of Suid herpesvirus type 1 in Austrian wild boar and hunting dogs. Vet Microbiol 2012, 157, 276–284.

  • 38. Steinrigl A., Revilla-Fernández S., Wodak E., Bagó Z., Schmoll F.: Diagnostic aspects of Suid herpesvirus 1 infection in wild boar. 2nd European Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians Congress, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland 2012, S3-O-10.

  • 39. Štukelj M., Toplak I., Vengušt G.: Prevalence of antibodies against selected pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Slovenia. Slov Vet Res 2014, 51, 21–28.

  • 40. Szweda W., Lipowski A., Ciecierski H., Pirus T.: Evaluation of the level of infection with Herpesvirus suis 1 in wild boar in Olsztyn province, Poland. 15th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Birmingham, U.K. 1998, p. 344.

  • 41. Thulke H.H., Selhorst T., Müller T.: Pseudorabies virus infections in wild boar: data visualization as an aid to understanding disease dynamics. Prev Vet Med 2005, 68, 35–48.

  • 42. Van der Leek M.L., Gibbs E.P.J.: Aujeszky’s disease virus infections in wild swine in the USA. 12th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, the Hague, the Netherlands 1992, p. 86.

  • 43. Vengust G., Valencak Z., Bidovec A.: Presence of antibodies against Aujeszky’s disease virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Slovenia. J Wildl Dis 2005, 41, 800–802.

  • 44. Vengust G., Valencak Z., Bidovec A.: A serological survey of selected pathogens in wild boar in Slovenia. J Vet Med B 2006, 53, 24–27.

  • 45. Vicente J., Ruiz-Fons F., Vidal D., Höfle U., Acevedo P., Villanúa D., Fernández-de-Mera I.G., Martín M.P., Gortázar C.: Serosurvey of Aujeszky’s disease virus infection in European wild boar in Spain. Vet Rec 2005, 156, 408–412.

  • 46. Wilson S., Doster A.R., Hoffman J.D., Hygnstrom S.E.: First record of pseudorabies in feral swine in Nebraska. J Wildl Dis 2009, 45, 874–876.

  • 47. Župančić Ž., Jukić B., Lojkić M., Čač Ž., Jemeršić L., Starešina V.: Prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever, Aujeszky’s disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in wild boars in Croatia. J Vet Med B 2002, 49, 253–256.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search