Introduction: Infections with bovine foamy virus (BFV) were found in many countries but there is a lack of large-scale surveys on the prevalence of BFV among dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the recombinant Gag protein-based ELISA and to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against BFV. Material and Methods: Gag coding region from BFV was cloned into expression vector pT7Arg-STOP, which expressed a high level of recombinant Gag protein from E.coli. The ELISA was standardised, and the cut-off value and sensitivity and specificity of the test were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic and Bayesian estimation. Results: A total of 3,051 serum samples were tested by ELISA and 939 (30.8%) sera were recognised as positive. When Bayesian approach was used, the overall true BFV prevalence was 29.7% (95% CI: 25.9-33.4%). Conclusion: Expressed Gag protein of BFV has been used successfully as an antigen for ELISA. Eventually, this study provides basic information about the epidemiological status of infection with BFV in dairy cattle in Poland, which can be used for further studies on dissemination and transmission of BFV infection.
1. Appleby R.C.: Antibodies to bovine syncytial virus in dairy cattle. Vet Rec 1979, 105, 80-81.
2. Bouillant A.M.; Ruckerbauer G.M.: Isolation of bovine syncytial virus from lymphocytes recovered from fluids used to flush uterus and oviducts of superovulated cattle. Can J Comp Med 1984, 48, 332-334.
3. Brown L.D., Cat T.T., DasGupta A.: Interval Estimation for a proportion. Statistical Science. 2001, 16, 101-133.
4. Cicchetti D.V., Feinstein A.R.: High agreement but low kappa: II. Resolving the paradoxes. J Clin Epidemiol 1990, 43, 551-558.
5. Ferrin N., Fang Y., Johnson C., Murtaugh M., Polson D., Torremorell M., Gramer M., Nelson E: Validation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Clin Diag Lab Immunol 2004, 11, 503-514.
6. Gardner I.A., Stryhn H., Lind P., Collins M.T.: Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases. Prev Vet Med 2000, 45, 107-122.
7. Greig A.S.: A syncytium regression test to detect antibodies to bovine syncytia virus. Can J Comp Med 1979, 43, 112-114.
8. Hahn H., Baunach G., Bräutigam S., Mergia A., Neumann-Haeflin D., Daniel M.D., McClure M.O., Rethwilm A.: Reactivity of primate sera to foamy virus Gag and Bet proteins. J Gen Virol 1994, 75, 2635-2644.
9. Hechler T., Materniak M., Kehl T., Kuzmak J., Löchelt M.: Complete genome sequences of two novel European clade bovine foamy viruses from Germany and Poland J Virol 2012, 86, 10905-10906. Doi: 10.1128/JVI.01875-12.
10. Hussain A.I., Shanmugam V., Bhullar V.B., Beer B.E., Vallet D., Gauier-Hion A., Wolfe N.D., Karesh W.B., Kilbourn A.M., Tooze Z., Heneine W., Switzer W.M.: Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses. Virology 2003, 309, 248-257.
11. Jacobs R.M., Pollari F.L., McNab W.B., Jefferson B.: A serological survey of bovine syncytial virus in Ontario: associations with bovine leukemia and immunodeficiency-like viruses, production records, and management practices. Can J Vet Res 1995, 59, 271-278.
12. Johnson R.H., Rosa R. de la, Abher I., Kertayadanya I.G., Entwistle K.W., Fordyce G., Holroyd R.G.: Epidemiological studies of bovine spumavirus. Vet Microbiol 1988, 16, 25-33.
13. Joseph L., Gyorkos T.W., Coupal L.: Bayesian estimation of disease prevalence and the parameters of diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard. Am J Epidemiol 1995, 141, 263-272.
14. Khan A.S., Sears J.F., Muller J., Galvin T.A., Shahabuddin M.: Sensitive assays for isolation and detection of simian foamy retroviruses. J Clinic Μicrobiol 1999, 37, 2678-2686.
15. Liu W., Worobey M., Li Y., Keele B.F., Bibollet-Ruche F., Guo Y., Goepfert P.A., Santiago M.L., Ndjango J.B., Neel C., Clifford S.L., Sanz C., Kamenya S., Wilson M.L., Pusey A.E., Gross-Camp N., Boesch C., Smith V., Zamma K., Huffman M.A., Mitani J.C., Watts D.P., Peeters M., Shaw G.M., Switzer W.M., Sharp P.M., Hahn B.H.: Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees. PloS Pathog 2008, 4, 1-21.
16. Luther P.D., Nuttall P.A., Gibbons R.A.: Isolation of viruses from cultures of bovine endometrial cells. J Infect Dis 1978, 138, 660-663.
17. Mahnke C., Löchelt M., Bannert H., Flugel R.M.: Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to the human spumavirus. J Virol Methods 1990, 29, 13-22.
18. Malmquist W.A., Maaten M.J., van der Boothe A.D.: Isolation, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy of a syncytial virus of lymphosarcomatous and apparently normal cattle. Cancer Res 1969, 29, 188-200.
19. Materniak M., Bicka L., Kuźmak J.: Isolation and partial characterization of bovine foamy virus from Polish cattle. Polish J Vet Sci 2006, 9, 207-211.
20. Materniak M., Sieradzki Z., Kuźmak J.: Detection of bovine foamy virus in milk and saliva of BFV seropositive cattle. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy, 2010, 54, 461-465.
21. Materniak M., Hechler T., Lochelt M., Kuzmak J.: Similar patterns of infection with bovine foamy virus in experimentally inoculated calves and sheep. J Virol 2013, 87, 3516-3525.
22. Murray S.M., Picker L.J, Axthelm M.K, Linial M.L.: Expanded tissue targets for foamy virus replication with simian immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression. J Virol 2006, 80, 663-670.
23. Pamba R., Jeronimo C., Archambault D.: Detection of bovine retrospumavirus by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 1999, 78, 199-208.
24. Renshaw R.W., Casey J.W.: Analysis of the 5’long terminal repeat of bovine syncytia virus. Gene 1994, 141, 221-224.
25. Romen F., Backes P., Materniak M., Sting R., Vahlenkamp T.W., Riebe R., Pawlita M., Kuzmak J., Löchelt M.: Serological detection systems for identification of cows shedding bovine foamy virus via milk. Virology 2007, 364, 123-131.
26. Winkler I.G., Löchelt M., Levesque J-P., Bodem J., Flügel R.M., Flower R.L.P.: A rapid streptavidin-capture ELISA specific for the detection of antibodies to feline foamy virus. J Immunol Methods 1997, 207, 69-77.