Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.
Material and Methods: A pool of 80 birds was divided randomly into four groups. Probiotic group (EF) and Salmonella + probiotic group (EFSE) received E. faecium EF55 (109 CFU – 3 g per group/day) during 22 d. Salmonella group (SE) and EFSE group were infected with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 (108 CFU in 0.2 mL PBS) in a single dose per os on day four of the experiment, whereas control birds (C group) received only 0.2 mL of PBS on that day. Samples were taken on the 4th and 18th day post infection.
Results: Supplementation of feed with E. faecium EF 55 confirmed its selective antibacterial activity against SE PT4. The chickens infected with SE PT4 and fed E. faecium EF55 supplemented diet showed increased proliferative activity of enterocytes in the jejunum in both samplings. Applied probiotic strain demonstrated positive impact on intestinal morphometry in the jejunum of both non-infected groups and in Salmonella-infected chickens. In the latter group, the beneficial effect of E. faecium EF 55 was manifested by more efficient tissue turnover in the jejunum.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Awad W.A. Ghareeb K. Böm J.: Effect of addition of a probiotic micro–organism to broiler diet on intestinal mucosal architecture and electrophysiological parameters. Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2009 94 486–494.
2. Chichlowski M. Croom J. Mcbridge B.W. Havestein G.B. Koci M.D.: Metabolic and physiologic impact of probiotics or direct–fed–microbials on poultry: a brief review of current knowledge. Int J Poult Sci 2007 6 694–704.
3. Farria Filho D.E. Torres K.A. Faria D.E.: Probiotics for broiler chickens in Brazil. Systematic review and meta–analysis. Brazil J Poult Sci 2006 8 89–98.
4. Herich R. Kokinčáková T. Lauková A. Levkutová M.: Effect of preventive application of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on intestinal mucosa during salmonellosis in chickens. Czech J Anim Sci 2010 55 42–47.
5. Iji P.A. Saki A.A. Tivey D.R.: Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a mannan oligosaccharide. J Sci Food Agr 2001 81 1186–1192.
6. Kaur N. Gupta A. K.: Application of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. J Biosci 2002 27 703–714.
7. Knodler L.A Finlay B.B.: Salmonella and apoptosis: to live or let die? Microb Infect 2001 3 1321–1326.
8. Levkut M. Pist J. Lauková A. Revajová V. Herich R. Ševčíková Z. Strompfová V. Szabóová R. Kokinčáková T.: Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium against Salmonella enteritidis in chicks. Acta Vet Hungarica 2009 57 13–24.
9. Levkut M. Jr. Revajová V. Lauková A. Ševčíková Z. Spišáková V. Faixová Z. Levkutková M. Strompfová V. Levkut M.: Leukocytic responses and intestinal mucin dynamics of broilers protected with Enterococcus faecium EF55 and challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. Res Vet Sci 2012 93 195–201.
10. MacFarlane G.Y. Steed H. MacFarlane S.: Bacterial metabolism and health - related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol 2008 104 305–344.
11. Peek H.W. Van der Klis J.D. Vermeulen B. Landman W.J.M.: Dietary protease can alleviate negative effects of a coccidiosis infection on production performance in broiler chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2009 150 151–159.
12. Revolleledo L. Ferreira A.J.P. Mead G.C.: Prospects in Salmonella control: competitive exclusion probiotics and enhancements of avian intestinal immunity. J Appl Poult Res 2006 16 341–351.
13. Ribeiro A.M.L. Vogt L.K. Canal C.W. Cardoso M.R.I. Labres R.V. Streck A.F. Bessa M.C.: Effect of prebiotics and probiotics on the colonization and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. Brazil J Poult Sci 2007 9 193–200.
14. Strompfova V. Lauková A. Mudroňová D.: Effect of bacteriocin-like substance produced by Enterococcus Faecium EF55 on the composition of avian gastrointestinal microflora. Acta Vet Brno 2003 72 559–564.
15. Uni Z. Platin R. Sklan D.: Cell proliferation in chicken intestinal epithelium occurs both in the crypt and along the villus. J Comp Physiol B 1998 168 241–247.
16. Yamauchi K.: Review on chicken intestinal villus histological alterations related with intestinal function. J Poult Sci 2002 39 229–242.
17. Woodford N. Egelton M.C. Morrison D.: Comparison of PCR with phenotypic methods for the speciation of enterococci. Plenum Press New York 1997 47 405–409.