The natural resistance against the majority of potential pathogens that exist in most plant species is known as non-host resistance. Several reports suggest the role of antioxidant enzymes in non-host resistance. We assayed the expression or activity of four scavenging enzymes during non-host pathogen-plant interaction (Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii/mung bean) and host pathogen-plant interaction (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli/mung bean). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the enzyme activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were investigated. The activities of CAT and POX were higher during non-host pathogen invasion vs. host pathogen attack. The expression of SOD and APX were also different between compatible and incompatible interactions. The expression of SOD and APX were higher in the incompatible compared to the compatible interaction. Additionally, induction of the antioxidant enzymes in response to non-host pathogen was earlier than induction in response to host pathogen. Such information is important for plant breeders, and useful when looking for alternative control strategies as well.
Ádám A.L., Bestwick C.S., Barna B., Mansfield J.W. 1995. Enzymes regulating the accumulation of active oxygen species during the hypersensitive reaction of bean to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Planta 197 (2): 240-249.
Aebi H. 1984. Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology 105: 121-126.
Agrawal G.K., Jwa N.S., Iwahashi H., Rakwal R. 2003. Importance of ascorbate peroxidases OsAPX1 and OsAPX2 in the rice pathogen response pathways and growth and reproduction revealed by their transcriptional profiling. Gene 322: 93-103.
Alvarez M.E., Pennell R.I., Meijer P.J., Ishikawa A., Dixon R.A., Lamb C. 1998. Reactive oxygen intermediates mediate a systemic signal network in the establishment of plant immunity. Cell 92 (6): 773-784.
Babitha M.P., Bhat S.G., Prakash H.S., Shetty H.S. 2002. Differential induction of superoxide dismutase in downy mildewresistant and -susceptible genotypes of pearl millet. Plant Pathology 51 (4): 480-486.
Baker C.J., Orlandi E.W. 1995. Active oxygen in plant pathogenesis. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33: 299-321.
Bellés J.M., Garro R., Pallás V., Fayos J., Rodrigo I., Conejero V. 2006. Accumulation of gentisic acid as associated with systemic infections but not with the hypersensitive response in plant-pathogen interactions. Planta 223 (3): 500-511.
Bolwell G.P., Bindschedler L.V., Blee K.A., Butt V.S., Davies D.R., Gardner S.L., Gerrish C., Minibayeva F. 2002. The apoplastic oxidative burst in response to biotic stress in plants: a three component system. Journal of Experimental Botany 53 (372): 1367-1376.
Bolwell G.P., Daudi A. 2009. Reactive oxygen species in plant- pathogen interactions. p. 113-133. In: “Reactive Oxygen Species in Plant Signaling (Signaling and Communication in Plants)” (L.A. del Río, A. Puppo, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 246 pp.
Cheng Y., Zhang H., Yao J., Wang X., Xu J., Han Q., Wei G., Huang L., Kang Z. 2012. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen. BMC Plant Biology 12: 96.
Daudi A., Cheng Z., O’Brien J.A., Mammarella N., Khan S., Ausubel F.M., Bolwell G.P. 2012. The apoplastic oxidative burst peroxidase in Arabidopsis is a major component of patterntriggered immunity. Plant Cell 24 (1): 275-287.
De Gara L., De Pinto M.C., Tommasi F. 2003. The antioxidant system vis-à-vis reactive oxygen species during plantpathogen interaction. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41 (10): 863-870.
Fan J., Doerner P. 2012. Genetic and molecular basis of non-host disease resistance: complex, yes; silver bullet, no. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 15 (4): 400-406.
Halliwell B. 2006. Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a fundamental theme of aerobic life. Plant Physiology 141 (2): 312-322.
Hao X., Yu K., Ma Q., Song X., Li H., Wang M. 2011. Histochemical studies on the accumulation of H2O2 and hypersensitive cell death in the non-host resistance of pepper against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 76 (2): 104-111.
Hückelhoven R., Dechert C., Kogel K.H. 2001. Non-host resistance of barley is associated with a hydrogen peroxide burst at sites of attempted penetration by wheat powdery mildew fungus. Molecular Plant Pathology 2 (4): 199-205.
Kwak Y.S., Han K.S., Lee J.H., Lee K.H., Chung W.S., Mysore K.S., Kwon Y.S., Kim H.K., Bae D.W. 2009. Different oxidative brust pattern occur during host and non-host resistance responses triggered by Xanthomonas campestris in pepper. Journal of Plant Biotechnology 36 (3): 244-254.
Lamb C., Dixon R.A. 1997. The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48: 251-275.
Lin C.C., Kao, C.H. 1999. NaCl induced changes in ionically bound peroxidase activity in roots of rice seedlings. Plant and Soil 216 (1-2): 147-153.
Livak K.J., Schmittgen T.D. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method. Methods 25 (4): 402-408.
Mellersh D.G., Foulds I.V., Higgins V.J., Heath M.C. 2002. H2O2 plays different roles in determining penetration failure in three diverse plant-fungal interactions. The Plant Journal 29 (3): 257-268.
Mendoza M. 2011. Oxidative burst in plant-pathogen interaction. Biotecnología Vegetal 11 (2): 67-75.
Mohammadi M., Kazemi H. 2002. Changes in peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in susceptible and resistant wheat heads inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and induced resistance. Plant Science 162 (4): 491-498.
O’Brien J.A., Daudi A., Finch P., Butt V.S., Whitelegge J.P., Souda P., Ausubel F.M., Bolwell G.P. 2012. A peroxidase-dependent apoplastic oxidative burst in cultured arabidopsis cells functions in MAMP-elicited defense. Plant Physiology 158 (4): 2013-2027.
Osdaghi E. 2014. Occurrence of common bacterial blight on mung bean (Vigna radiata) in Iran caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. New Disease Report 30: 9.
Sairam R.K., Dharmar K., Lekshmy S., Chinnusamy V. 2011. Expression of antioxidant defense genes in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) roots under water-logging is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33 (3): 735-744.
Senthil-Kumar M., Mysore K.S. 2013. Non-host resistance against bacterial pathogens: retrospectives and prospects. Annual Review of Phytopathology 51: 407-427.
Shigeoka S., Ishikawa T., Tamoi M., Miyagawa Y., Takeda T., Yabuta Y., Yoshimura K. 2002. Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes. Journal of Experimental Botany 53 (372): 1305-1319.
Smith M.W., Doolittle R.F. 1992. A comparision of evolutionary rates of the two major kinds of superoxide dismutases. Journal of Molecular Evolution 34 (2): 175-184.
Subramanian B., Bansal V.K., Kav N.N. 2005. Proteome-level investigation of Brassica carinata-derived resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2): 313-324.