Efficacy of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi Alone or in Combination With Diatomaceous Earth Modifications for the Control of Three Pyralid Moths in Stored Grains
The efficacy of Natural diatomaceous (DE) alone and combined with three fungal pathogens: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea against three moth species, Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella and E. kuehniella was evaluated. Modified diatoms with Calcium hydroxide (Ca-DE) and modified diatoms with Sodium hydroxide (Na-DE) were the highlight treatments against tested insects and achieved the highest mortality percentages. E. kuehniella achieved the highest tolerant to tested DEs. B. bassiana was the most effective fungus alone against the three tested insects. Ca-DE and Na-DE treatments strongly enhanced the potency of the tested fungi. E. kuehniella was more susceptible to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Larvae of P. interpunctella and E. cautella were more tolerant to I. fumosorosea alone than E. kuehniella. In most cases, DE combinations with tested fungi had synergistic effects, while in E. cautella, modified diatoms with Aluminium hydroxide (Al-DE) decreased the efficacy of M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea. Also, Al-DE and DE impaired the efficacy of I. fumosorosea against E. kuehniella. The egg production was highly suppressed by combination of Ca-DE followed by Na-DE with tested fungi in comparison to untreated control. The combination of Ca-DE/Beauveria bassiana strongly suppressed the number of deposited eggs of P. interpunctella (54.6±5.8 eggs/female), in comparison to untreated control (288.3±3.4 eggs/female).
The most effective DEs modification were Ca-DE and Na-DE had insecticidal, repellent and ovicidal effects against tested insects and they had synergistic effects on the potency of tested fungi.
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