Application of Mycorrhizae for Controlling Root Diseases of Sesame
Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (VAM) was evaluated as a biotic agent for controlling wilt and root-rot diseases of sesame caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami (Zap.) Cast and Macrophomina phaseolina (Moubl) Ashby pathogens can infect sesame plant at any growth stage causing considerable losses of seed yield. Spores of VA mycorrhizae fungi (Glomus spp.) were collected from the soil around the root systems of sesame plants then propagated on roots of Suddan grass (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese). Under green house and field conditions, two hundreds sporocarps of Glomus spp. were added as a soil drench beside the sesame plant. Glomus spp. (VA mycorrhizae) significantly reduced wilt and root-rot incidence of sesame plants. Lums spp. (VA mycorrhizae) also significantly increased plant morphological characters such as plant height, number of branches and number of pods for each plant. Application of Glomus spp. to protect sesame plants by colonizing the root system, significantly reduced colonization of fungal pathogens in sesame rhizosphere as well as pathogenic activity of fungal pathogens increased lignin contents in the sesame root system were also observed. Furthermore, mycorrhizae treatment provided selective bacterial stimulation for colonization on sesame rhizosphere. These bacteria belonging the Bacillus group showed highly antagonistic potential to fungal pathogens. Application of mycorrhizae together with other biocontrol agent such as Trichoderma viride or Bacillus subtilis significantly effected than individual treatments for controlling these diseases incidences and increasing morphological characters and seed yield of sesame.
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