Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
ALLEN L.Q. (2004). Implementing a Culture Portfolio Project within a Constructivist Paradigm. Foreign Language Annals 37(2) 232-239.
BANAJI M. R. (2001). Stereotypes Social Psychology of. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.) International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences Oxford: Pergamon 15100-15104.
BRAUN V. & CLARKE V. (2006). Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3(2) 77-101.
BRIJS K. BLOEMER J. & KASPER H. (2011). Country-image Discourse Model: Unravelling Meaning Structure and Function of Country Images. Journal of Business Research 64 1259-1269.
BYRAM K. & KRAMSCH C. (2008). Why is it so difficult to teach language as culture? The German Quarterly 81(1) 20-34.
CASTELLOTTI V. & MOORE D. (2002). Social Representations of Languages and Teaching: Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe from Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
CRESSWELL J.W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Pearson.
DÖRNYEI Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
DREWELOW I. (2013). Impact of Instruction on Shaping or Reshaping Stereotypical Cultural Representations in an Introductory French Course. Foreign Language Annals 46(2) 157-174.
FRAENKEL J.R. WALLEN N.E. & HYUN H.H. (2011). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. McGraw Hill: New York.
GARDINI S. CORNOLDI C. & DE BENI R. (2006). Mental Imagery. In Kurt Pawlik and Géry d’Ydewalle (Eds.) Psychological Concepts: An International Historical Perspective. Psychology Press: Hove East Sussex 141-162.
GARDNER R.C. & LAMBERT W.E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley MA: Newbury House.
HOUGHTON S. (2010). Managing Stereotypes through Experiential Learning. Intercultural Communication Studies 19(1) 182-198.
MCGARTY C. YZERBYT V. Y. & SPEARS R. (2002). Stereotypes as Explanations: The Formation of Meaningful Beliefs about Social Groups. Cambridge University Press.
MENARD S. (2002). Longitudinal Research. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
NIKITINA L. (2015). Country Stereotypes and L2 Motivation: A Study of French German and Spanish Language Learners. Studies in Linguistics 37 483-508.
NIKITINA L. & FURUOKA F. (2013). “A Distant Land of Snow…”: Russian Language Learners’ Representations of Russia. Zeitschrift für Slawistik 58(2) 193-204.
NIKITINA L. ZURAIDAH M.D. & LOH S. C. (2014). Il Bel Paese as seen from Malaysia: Language Learners’ Stereotypical Representations of Italy. Moderna Språk 108(2) 65-79.
ORTEGA L. & IBERRI-SHEA G. (2005). Longitudinal Research in Second Language Acquisition: Recent Trends and Future Directions. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 25 26-45.
SCHULTZ R.A. & HAERLE B.M. (1995). “Beer fast cars and…: Stereotypes held by U.S. College-level Students of German. Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German 28(1) 29-39.
STORME J. A. & DERAKHSHANI M. (2002). Defining Teaching Evaluating Cultural and Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom. Foreign Language Annals 35(6) 657-668.
VANDE BERG C.K. (1990). Americans Viewed by the Spanish: Using Stereotypes to Teach Culture. Hispania 73(2) 518-521.