Objective: This paper sets out to examine language learner identity in a global context, by first analysing the dominant position of English in the world today and then in the light of this, revisiting the concepts which aim to describe how individuals are motivated to learn English.
Methodology: The paper is based on research findings as documented in numerous studies, for example Smit & Dafouz (2012) and Wächter & Maiworm (2014).
Findings: The findings emphasise the fact that the hegemony of English in the world today, where around 400 million people use English as a first language, shows no sign of diminishing. In fact, issues surrounding the consequences of globalisation make the place of English in the world ever more solidified, however the contexts and the purposes for which it used are changing.
Value added: By examining certain aspects of the powerful position of English today, this paper proposes the view that conceptions of specific motivational aspects of language learner identity are no longer as valid as they once were.
Recommendations: The paper recommends that a new theorizing of learner identity, with specific focus on L2 learner motivation, needs to be considered.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Anderson B. (1991). Imagined. Communities Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Arnold J. (1999).Affect in language learning. Cambridge: CUP.
Arnold J. (2011). Attention to affect in language learning. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies 22(11) 11–22.
Baker W. & Hüttner J. (2017). English and more: a multisite study of roles and conceptualisations of language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development38(6) 501–516.
Bothwell E. (2017).The world’s most international universities 2017. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/features/worlds-most-international-universities-2017.
Chen J. F. Warden C. A. & Chang H. T. (2005). Motivators that do not motivate: The case of Chinese EFL learners and the influence of culture on motivation. TESOL Quarterly39 609–633.
Clément R. Dörnyei Z. & Noels K. A. (1994). Motivation Self-Confidence and Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom. Language Learning 44(3) 417–448.
Clément R. Baker S. C. & Macintyre P. D. (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effects of context norms and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 22 190–209.
Costa F. (2012). Focus on Form in ICLHE Lectures. Evidence from English-medium Science lectures by Native Speakers of Italian. AILA Review25 30–47.
Doiz A. Lasagabaster D. & Sierra J. M. (eds.) (2012).English Medium Instruction at Universities – Global Challenges. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei Z. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in foreign language learning. Language Learning40(1) 45–78.
Dörnyei Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal 78 273–284.
Dörnyei Z. (1998). Motivation in Second and Foreign Language Learning. Language Teaching 31 117–135.
Dörnyei Z. (2001).Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: CUP.
Dörnyei Z. (2001a).Teaching and Researching Motivation. London: Longman.
Dörnyei Z. (2001b). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics21 43–59.
Dörnyei Z. (2005).The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei Z. (2009). Individual differences: interplay of learner characteristics and learning environment. Language Learning 59(1) 237–255.
Dörnyei Z. & Csizér K. (1998). Ten commandments for motivating language learners: results of an empirical study. Language Teaching Research2(3) 203–229.
Dörnyei Z. & Csizér K. (2002). Some dynamics of language attitudes and motivation: Results of a longitudinal nationwide survey. Applied Linguistics 23 421–462.
Dörnyei Z. Csizér K. & Németh N. (2006).Motivation language attitudes and globalisation: A Hungarian perspective. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Dörnyei Z. & Ushioda E. (2011).Teaching and researching motivation. London: Pearson Education.
Dörnyei Z. & Ushioda E. (2013).Theories of motivation in psychology. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.) Teaching and Researching Motivation (pp.12-38). UK: Taylor & Francis.
Fortanet-Gómez I. (2013).CLIL in Higher Education: Towards a Multilingual Language Policy. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Gardner R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Arnold.
Gardner R. C. (2007). Motivation and Second Language Acquisition. Porta Lingua-rum8 9–20.
Gardner R. C. (2010).Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. Bern: Peter Lang.
Gardner R. C. & Lambert W. E. (1972).Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. New York: Newbury House.
Gardner R. C. & Macintyre P. D. (1993). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning 43 157–194.
Jenkins J. (2014).English as a Lingua Franca in the international university: the politics of academic English language policy. UK: Routledge.
Komori-Glatz M. (2015). Exploring the Roles of English: English as a Lingua Franca in Master’s Programmes at WU Vienna University of Economics and Business. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 173 119–124.
Horwitz E. K. Horwitz M. B. & Cope J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal 70 125–132.
Horwitz E. K. & Young D. J. (1991). Language anxiety. From theory and research to classroom implications Prentice-Hall.
Knight J. (2008). Higher education in turmoil; the changing world of internationalization. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Krashen S. (1985). The input hypothesis. NJ: Laredo.
Lo Bianco J. (2007). Language Place and Learning. http://pascalobservatory.org/pascalnow/pascal-activities/news/language-place-and-learning. Access: 04.01.2019.
Macaro E. Curle S. Pun J. A. N. J. & Dearden J. (2018). A systematic review of English medium instruction in higher education. Language Teaching 51(01) 36–76.
Macintyre P. D. Clément R. Dörnyei Z. & Noels K.A. (1998). Conceptualising willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal 82 545–562.
Markus H. R. & Nurius P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist 41 954–969.
Mauranen A. Hynninen N. & Ranta E. (2010). English as an academic lingua franca: The ELFA project. English for Specific Purposes 29 183–190.
Matsuoka R. (2006). Japanese college students’ willingness to communicate in English. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Temple University.
Matsuoka R. (2009). Communication apprehension among Japanese college students. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 12(2) 37–48.
McCroskey J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research4 78–96.
McClelland N. (2000).Goal orientations in Japanese college students learning EFL. In S. Cornwell & P. Robinson (2000). Individual differences in foreign language learning: Effects of aptitude intelligence and motivation. Japanese Association for Language Teaching.
Mercer S. (2011).Towards an understanding of language learner self-concept. New York: Springer.
Mitchell N. (2016).Universities around the world offer tuition in English. www.bbc.uk. Access: 13.02.2019.
Norton B. (2000).Identity and language learning: Gender ethnicity and educational change. Pearson.
Norton B. & McKinney C. (2011).An Identity Approach to Second Language Acquisition. In D. Atkinson (ed.) Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition (pp. 73–94). Routledge.
Pawan F. (2008). Content area teachers and scaffolded instruction for English Language Learners. Teaching and Teacher Education 24(6) 1450–1462.
Räisänen C. A. & Fortanet-Gomez I. (2008).The state of ESP teaching and learning in Western European higher education after Bologna. In C. A. Räisänen & I. Fortanet-Gomez (Eds.) ESP in European Higher Education: Integrating language and content. AILA Applied Linguistics 4 11–51.
Schumann J. H. (1978). The relationship of pidginization creolization and decreolization to second language acquisition. Language learning28 367–379.
Schumann J. H. (1990). Extending the scope of the acculturation / pidginization model to include cognition. TESOL Quarterly 24(4) 667–684.
Shohamy E. (2012). A critical perspective on the use of English as a medium of instruction at universities. In A. Doiz D. Lasagabaster & J. M. Sierra (eds.) English-Medium Instruction at Universities. Global Challenges (pp. 196–210). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Smit U. (2018). Classroom discourse in EMI: On the dynamics of multilingual practices. In K. Murata (Ed.) English-Medium Instruction from an English as a Lingua Franca Perspective. UK: Routledge.
Smit U. & Dafouz E. (2012).Integrating content and language in higher education: An introduction to English-medium policies conceptual issues and research practices across Europe. In U. Smit & E. Dafouz (eds.) Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education: Gaining Insights into English-Medium Instruction at European Universities (pp. 1–12). AILA Review 25.iii John Benjamins.
Uribe D. Gutiérrez J. & Madrid D. (2011). Crossnation Differences in Attitudes of Secondary English Learners. World Journal of English Language1(1) 9–18.
Ushioda E. (2006). Language motivation in a reconfigured Europe: Access identity and autonomy. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development27 148–161.
Ushioda E. (2009).A person-in-context relational view of emergent motivation self and identity. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (eds.) Motivation Language Identity and the L2 Self (pp. 215–228). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
The ‘Learning Curve’ (2012). www.ef.com/epi.Pearson.
Van Weijen D. (2012). The language of (future) scientific communication. Research Trends.https://www.researchtrends.com.
Wächter B. & Maiworm F. (2014). English-Taught Programmes in European Higher Education: The State of Play in 2014 ACA Papers on International Cooperation in Education. Antwerp: Lemmens.
Walkinshaw I. Fenton-Smith B. & Humphreys P. (2017).EMI issues and challenges in Asia-Pacific higher education. In I. Walkinshaw B. Fenton-Smith & P. Humphreys (eds.) English Medium Instruction in Higher Education in Asia-Pacific: From Policy to Pedagogy (pp. 1–18). Multilingual Education 21.
Warden C. & Lin H. J. (2000). Existence of integrative motivation in Asian EFL settings. Foreign Language Annals 33 535–547.
Wilkinson R. (2012). English-medium instruction at a dutch university: Challenges and pitfalls. In Doiz A. Lasagabaster D. & Sierra J. M. (eds.) (2012).English Medium Instruction at Universities – Global Challenges. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Yashima T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal 86 54–66.