In Vitro Propagation Of Nepalese Orchids: A Review

Open access


Nepalese orchids are made up of 458 taxa. Despite a ban on the collection and trade of all orchid species in Nepal, numerous anthropogenic factors are leading to the rapid loss of natural stands of germplasm. Biotechnology, specifically in vitro propagation, may be the only viable solution for preserving and reintroducing endangered germplasm back into the wild. Despite the large germplasm base, only tissue culture studies have been conducted, and most have focused almost exclusively on in vitro seed germination, the bulk of which have been conducted in the past few years. No other biotechnological advances have yet been made. This brief review provides a short synopsis of the advances made thus far in the in vitro propagation of Nepalese orchids.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Acharya K.P. Rokaya M.B. 2005. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants traded in the streets of Kathmandu valley. Scientific World 3(3): 44-48.

  • Acharya K.P. Rokaya M.B. 2010. Medicinal orchids of Nepal: are they well protected? Our Nature 8. 82-91. DOI: 10.3126/on.v8i1.4315.

  • Acharya K.P. Vetaas O.R. Birks H.J.B. 2011. Orchid species richness along Himalayan elevational gradients. J. Biogeogr. 38: 1821-1833. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02511.x.

  • Bajracharya D.M. Shakya L.R. 2002. Nepalese orchids: its status and systematics. Journal of Natural History Museum 21: 223-242.

  • Dressler R.L. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Cambridge University Press.

  • Gamborg O.L. Miller R.A. Ojima K. 1968. Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp. Cell Res. 50: 151-158.

  • Hossain M.M. Kant R. Van P.T. Winarto B. Zeng S. Teixeira da Silva J.A. 2012. The application of biotechnology to orchids. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 32: 69-139. DOI: 10.1080/07352689.2012.715984.

  • Knudson L. 1946. A new nutrient solution for germination of orchid seeds. Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 15(5): 214-217.

  • Koirala D. Pradhan S. Pant B. 2013. Asymbiotic seed germination and plantlet development of Coelogyne fuscescens Lindl. a medicinal orchid of Nepal. Scientific World 11(11): 97-100. DOI: 10.3126/sw.v11i11.8561

  • MOFSC 2013. Sunakhari Sankalan tatha kheti bikas (Karyabidhi) nirdesika 2069 BS Kathmandu Nepal. [in Nepali] Mukhopadhyay K. Roy S.C. 1994. In vitro induction of ‘runner’ - a quick method of micropropagation in orchid. Sci. Hortic. 56: 331-337. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4238(94)90051-5.

  • Murashige T. Skoog F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15(3): 473-497.

  • Pant B. 2013. Medicinal orchids and their uses: Tissue culture a potential alternative for conservation. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 7(10): 448-467. DOI: 10.5897/AJPS2013.1031.

  • Pant B. 2014. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants. Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine II. Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology 808: 25-39. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1774-9_3.

  • Pant B. Gurung R. 2005. In vitro seed germination and seedling development in Aerides odorata Lour. J. Orchid Soc. India 19: 51-55.

  • Pant B. Pradhan S. 2010. Micropropagation of Cymbidium elegans Lindl. through protocorm and shoot tip culture. Role of biotechnology in food security and climate change. In: Proceedings of 6th International plant tissue culture and Biotechnology conference Dhaka Bangladesh December pp. 3-5.

  • Pant B. Raskoti B. 2013. Medicinal orchids of Nepal. Himalayan Map House Pvt. Ltd.

  • Pant B. Shrestha S. 2011. In vitro mass propagation of a ground orchid - Phaius tancarvilleae (L’Her.) Blume through shoot tip culture. Plant Tiss. Cult. Biotechnol. 21(2): 181-188.

  • Pant B. Shrestha S. Pradhan S. 2011. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Phaius tancarvilleae (L’Her.) Blume. Scientific World 9(9): 50-52. DOI: 10.3126/sw.v9i9.5518.

  • Pant B. Swar S. 2011. Micropropagation of Cymbidium iridioides. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 12: 91-96. DOI: 10.3126/njst.v12i0.6485.

  • Pant B. Swar S. Karanjeet A. 2008. Micropropagation of Coelogyne cristata Lindl. J. Orchid Soc. India 22(1-2): 45-48.

  • Pant B. Thapa D. 2012. In vitro mass propagation of an epiphytic orchid Dendrobium primulinum Lindl. through shoot tip culture. Afr. J. Biotech. 11(42): 9970-9974. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3106.

  • Parmar G. 2014. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Cymbidium devonianum Paxton (Orchidaceae). Bull. Dept. Plant Res. 36: 61-64.

  • Paudel M.R. Pant B. 2012a. In vitro micropropagation of rare orchid (Esmeralda clarkei Rchb.f.) from shoot tip section. International Journal of Biology Pharmacy and Allied Sciences 1(11): 1587-1597.

  • Paudel M.R. Pant B. 2012b. In vitro plant regeneration of Esmeralda clarkei Rchb.f. via protocorm explant. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(54): 11704-11708. DOI: 10.5897/AJB12.985.

  • Paudel M.R. Pant B. 2013. A reliable protocol for micropropagation of Esmeralda clarkei Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae). Asia Pacific J. Mol. Biol. Biotechnol. 21(3): 114-120.

  • Paudel M.R. Pradhan S. Pant B. 2012 In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Esmeralda clarkei Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae). Plant Tiss. Cult. Biotechnol. 22(2): 107-111.

  • Pradhan S. Pant B. 2009. In vitro seed germination in Cymbidium elegans Lindl. and Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. ex Wall (Orchidaceae). Botanical Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science 6: 100-102. DOI: 10.3126/botor.v6i0.2917.

  • Pradhan S. Paudel Y.P. Pant B. 2013a. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. a medicinal orchid. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 12(12): 1378-1383. DOI: 10.5897/AJB12.2731.

  • Pradhan S. Regmi T. Parmar G. Pant B. 2013b. Effect of different media on in vitro seed germination and seedling development of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 14(1): 51-56. DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i1.8878.

  • Rajbhandari K.P. Bhattarai S. 2001. Beautiful orchids of Nepal. Kishor Offset Press Pvt. Ltd.

  • Rajkarnikar K.M. 2011. Propagation of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. in vitro by seeds. Bull. Dept. Plant Res. 33: 27-30.

  • Rajkarnikar K.M. 2014. In vitro propagation of Dendrobium amoenum Wall. ex Lindl. from shoot-tip culture. Bull. Dept. Plant Res. 36: 52-55.

  • Rokaya M.B. Raskoti B.B. Timsina B. Münzbergová Z. 2013. An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal. Nordic J. Bot. 31(5): 511-550. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2013.01230.x.

  • Sharma S. Shahzad A. Teixeira da Silva J.A. 2013. Synseed technology - a complete synthesis. Biotechnology Advances 31(2): 186-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.09.007.

  • Shrestha M. Rajbhandary S.B. 1988. Meristem culture of Cymbidium giganteum Wall Ex Lindl. National Conference on Science and Technology April 24-29 1988 Kathmandu Nepal pp. 345-349. Shrestha M. Rajbhandary S.B. 1994. Clonal multiplication of Cymbidium longifolium D.Don by shoot-tip culture. 2nd National Conference on Science and Technology June 8-11 1994 Kathmandu Nepal pp. 369-371.

  • Subedi A. Kunwar B. Choi Y. Dai Y. van Andel T. Chaudhary R.P. de Boer H.J. Gravendeel B. 2013. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 9: 64. DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-9-64.

  • Swar S. Pant B. 2004. Influence of growth regulators on asymbiotic germination and early seedling development of Cymbidium iridioides D. Don. 4th National Conference on Science and Technology March 23-26 2004 Kathmandu Nepal pp. 1039-1043.

  • Swarts N.D. Dixon K.W. 2009. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Ann. Bot. 104(3): 543-556. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcp025.

  • Teixeira da Silva J.A. 2012. Is BA (6-benzyladenine) BAP (6-benzylaminopurine)? The Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 6 (Special Issue 1): 121-124.

  • Teixeira da Silva J.A. 2013. Orchids: advances in tissue culture genetics phytochemistry and transgenic biotechnology. Floriculture Ornamental Biotechnol. 7(1): 1-52.

  • Teixeira da Silva J.A. Chin D.P. Van P.T. Mii M. 2011. Transgenic orchids. Sci. Hortic. 130: 673-680. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.08.025.

  • Teixeira da Silva J.A. Kerbauy G.B. Zeng S. Chen Z. Duan J. 2014. In vitro flowering of orchids. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 34(1): 56-76. DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2013.807219.

  • White K. Sharma B. 2000. Wild orchids in Nepal: the guide to the Himalayan orchids of the Tribhuvan Rajpath and Chitwan jungle. White Lotus Press.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.51

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.207
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.497

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 356 236 1
PDF Downloads 343 242 4