The primary purpose of this work was to assess the persistence of water repellency in the surface horizon of coarse-textured soils under natural Quercus robur ecosystems, and Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus plantations, in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Water repellency was determined by applying the water drop penetration test (WDPT) to soil samples collected from variable depths (0–40 cm). Measurements were made on field-moist samples obtained at the end of the dry period and on samples dried at 25ºC in the air. All soils exhibited very high (severe to extreme) water repellency in the topmost soil layer (0–5 cm) but no significant differences among the three plant species studied. Extreme persistence was observed down to 20 cm in the soils under eucalyptus and down to 10 cm in those under pine. The soils under oak were those exhibiting the highest variability in water repellency and the greatest decrease in it with increasing depth (especially in relation to soils under eucalyptus).
Water repellency exhibited significant positive correlation with the C content and C/N ratio of the soils. Soil water repellency was similar in the air-dried samples and field-moist samples.
Alagna, V., Iovino, M., Bagarello, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Lichner, L., 2017. Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate water repellency in Mediterranean pine forest soils. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 65, 254–263.
Alanís, N., Hernández-Madrigal, V.M., Cerdà, A., Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A., 2017. Spatial gradients of intensity and persistence of soil water repellency under different forest types in Central México. Land Degrad. Develop., 28, 317–327.
Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mayoral, A.M., Morales J., 2007. Factors controlling the water repellency induced by fire in calcareous Mediterranean forest soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 58, 1254–1259.
Badía, D., Aguirre, J.A., Martí, C., Márquez, M.A., 2013. Sieving effect on the intensity and persistence of water repellency at different soil depthts and soil types from NE-Spain. Catena, 108, 44–49.
Benito, E., Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Varela, E., 2016. Environmental factors governing soil water repellency dynamics in a Pinus pinaster plantation in NW Spain. Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 3, 719–728.
Buczko, U., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F., 2005. Variability of soil water repellency in sandy forest soils with different stand structure under Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Geoderma, 126, 317–336.
Buczko, U., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F., 2007. Changes in soil water repellency in a pine –beech forest transformation chronosequence: influence of antecedent rainfall and air temperatures. Ecological Engineering, 31, 154–164.
Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2325–2336.
CMR, 2009. Anuario de estatistica agraria 2009. Conselleria de Medio Rural. Xunta de Galicia.
Cosentino, D., Hallett, P.D., Michel, J.C., Chenu, C., 2010. Do different methods for measuring the hydrophobicity of soil aggregates give the same trends in soil amended with residue? Geoderma, 159, 221–227.
Crockford, S., Topalidis, S., Richardson, D.P., 1991. Water repellency in a dry sclerophyll forest –measurements and processes. Hydrol. Process., 5, 405–420.
de Blas, E., Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Almendros, G., 2010. Speciation of lipid and humic fractions in soils under pine and eucaliptus forest in northwest Spain and its effect on water repellency. Geoderma, 155, 242–248.
de Blas, E., Almendros, G., Sanz, J., 2013. Molecular characterization of lipid fractions from extremely water-repellent pine and euclyptus forest soils- Geoderma, 206, 75–84.
De Jonge, L.W., Moldrup, P., Schjonning, P., 2009. Soil infrastructure, interfaces and translocation processes in inner space (‘soil-it-is’): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13, 1485–1502.
Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., 1994. How water moves in a water repellent sandy soil. 1. Potential and actual water repellency. Water Resources Research, 30, 2507–2517.
Dekker, L.K., Doerr, S.H., Oostindie, K., Ziogas, A.K., Ritsema, C.J., 2001. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 1667–1674.
Dekker, L.W., Oostindie, K., Ritsema, C.J., 2005. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 403–441.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Wals, R.P.D., 1996. Soil hydrophobicity variations with depth and particle size fraction in burned and unburned Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest terrain in the Agueda basin, Portugal. Catena, 27, 25–47.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 1998. Spatial variability of soil water repellency in fire-prone eucalyptus and pine forest, Portugal. Soil Science, 163, 313–324.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydrogeomorphological consequences. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33–65.
Doerr, S.H., Douglas, P., Evans, R.C., Morley, C.P, Mullinger, N.J., Bryant, R., Shakesby, R.A., 2005. Effects of heating and post-heating equilibration times on soil water repellency. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 261–267.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., 2006. Occurrence, prediction and hydrological effects of water repellency amongst major soils and land use types in a humid temperate climate. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 57, 741–754.
Doerr, S.H., Scott, D.F., Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., Carter, D., 2007. Water repellence of soils: new insights and emerging research needs. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2223–2228.
Doerr, S.H., Woods, S.W., Martin, D.A., Casimiro, M., 2009. Natural background soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence. J. Hydrol., 371, 12–21.
Franco, C.M.M., Clarke, P.J., Tate, M.E., Oades, J.M., 2000. Hydrophobic properties and chemical characterisation of natural water-repellent materials in Australian sands. J. Hydrol., 231–232, 47–58.
Franco, C.M.M., Clarke, P.J., Tate, M.E., Oades, J.M., 2003. Chemical characterisation of water repellent materials in Australian sands. In: Ritsema, C.J, Dekker, L.W. (Eds): Soil Water Repellency: Occurrence, Consequences and Amelioration. Elsevier Science, The Netherlands, pp. 37–50.
Goebel, M.-O., Bachmann, J.B.A., Reichstein, M., Janssens, I.A., Guggenberger, G., 2011. Soil water repellency and its implications for organic matter decomposition-is there a link to extreme climatic events? Global Change Biology, 17, 2640–2656.
Harper, R.J., McKissock, I., Gilkes, R.J., Carter, D.J., Black-well, P.S., 2000. A multivariate framework for interpreting the effects of soil properties, soil management and land use on water repellency. J. Hydrol., 231–232, 371–383.
Jaramillo, D.F., Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., Hendrickx, J.M.H., 2000. Occurrence of soil water repellency in arid and humid climates. J. Hydrol., 231–232, 105–111.
Jiménez-Morillo, N.T., González-Pérez, J.A., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., de la Rosa, J.M., Jiménez-González, M.A., González-Vila, F.J., 2016. Organic matter fractions controlling soil water repellency in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 5, 1413–1423.
Jimenez-Pinilla, P., Lozano, E., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., 2016. Temporal changes in soil water repellency after a forest fire in a Mediterranean calcareous soil: influence of ash and different vegetation type. Sci. Total Environ., 572, 1252–1260.
Johnson, M.S., Lehmann, J., Steenhuis, T.S., de Oliveira, L.V., Fernandes, E.C.M., 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of soil water repellency of Amazonian pastures. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 319–326.
Keizer, J.J., Coelho, C.O.A., Matías, M.J.S., Domingues, C.S.P., Ferreira, A.D.J., 2005a. Soil water repellency under dry and wet antecedent weather conditions for selected land-cover types in the coastal zone of central Portugal. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 3, 297–308.
Keizer, J.J., Ferreira, A.J.D., Coelho, C.O.A., Doerr, S.H., Malvar, M.C., Domingues, C.S.P., Perez, I.M.B., Ruiz, C., Ferrari, K., 2005b. The role of tree stem proximity in the spatial variability of soil water repellency in a eucalypt plantation in coastal Portugal. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 3, 251–260.
Leighton-Boyce, G., Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., Ferreira, A.D.J., Boulet, A.K., Coelho, C.O.A., 2005. Temporal dynamics of water repellency and soil moisture in eucalypt plantations, Portugal. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 3, 269–280.
Leighton-Boyce, G., Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.D.P., 2007. Quantifying the impact of soil water repellency on overland flow generation and erosion: a new approach using rainfall simulation and wetting agents on in situ soils. Hydrol Process., 21, 2337–2345.
Mao, J., Nierop, K.G.J., Rietkerk, M., Sinninghe Damsté J.S., Dekker, S.C., 2016. The influence of vegetation on soil water repellency-markers and soil hydrophobicity. Sci. Total Environment, 566–567, 608–620.
Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., 2004. Hydrophobicity and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fire-affected pine forests in southeastern Spain. Geoderma, 118, 1–2, 77–88.
Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Guerrero, C., Mayoral, A.M., Morales, J., Gonzalez, J., García-Orenes, F., Gómez, I., 2007. Water repellency under different plant species in a calcareous forest soil in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2300–2309.
Ritsema, C.J., Dekker, L.W., Heijs, A.W.J., 1997. Three-dimensional, fingered flow patterns in a water repellent sandy field soil. Soil Science, 162, 79–90.
Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Benito, E., de Blas, E., 2007. Extent and persistence of water repellency in north-western Spanish soils. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2291–2299.
Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Benito, E., 2011. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water repellency in sandy loam soils of NW Spain under Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Hydrol. Process., 25, 3649–3658.
Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Benito, E., 2012. Temporal fluctuations of water repellency in forest soils of Galicia, NW Spain. Do soil samples dried at laboratory reflect the potential soil water repellency? Hydrol. Process., 26, 8, 1179–1187.
Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Varela, M.E., Benito, E., 2012. Natural severity of water repellency in pine forest soils from NW Spain and influence of wildfire severity on its persistence. Geoderma, 191, 125–131.
Santos, J.M., Verheijen, F.G.A., Wahren, F.T., Wahren, A., Feger, K.H., Bernard-Jannin, L., Rial-Rivas, M.E., Keizer, J.J., Nunes, J.P., 2013. Soil water repellency dynamics in pine and eucalypt plantations in Portugal-A high resolution time series. Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 5, 1334–1343.
Scott, D.F., 2000. Soil wettability in forested catchments in South Africa as measured by different methods and as affected by vegetation cover and soil characteristics. J. Hydrol., 231–232, 87–104.
Shakesby, R.A., Coelho, C.O.A., Ferreira, A.J.D., Terry, J.R., Walsh, R.P.D., 1993. Wildfire impacts on soil erosion and hydrology in wet Mediterranean forest, Portugal. Int. J. Wildland Fire, 3, 95–110.
USDA, 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigation report, vol. 42. Version 4.0. USDANCRS, Lincoln, NE.
Van’t Woudt, B.D., 1959. Particle coatings affect the wettability of soils. Journal of Geophysical Research, 64, 263–267.
Varela, M.E., Benito, E., de Blas, E., 2005. Impact of wildfires on surface water repellency in soils of NW Spain. Hydrol. Process., 19, 3649–3657.
Vogelmann, E.S., Reichert, J.M., Prevedello, J., Consensa, C.O.B., Oliveira, A.É., Awe, G.O., Mataix-Solera, J., 2013. Threshold water content beyond which hydrophobic soils become hydrophilic: The role of soil texture and organic matter content. Geoderma, 209–210, 177–187.
Wallis, M.G., Horne, D.J., 1992. Soil water repellency. Advances in Soil Science, 20, 91–146.
WRB, 2006. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. World Soil Resources Reports, No 103, FAO, Rome.
Zavala, L.M., González, F.A., Jordán, A., 2009. Fire-induced soil water repellency under different vegetation types along the Atlantic dune coast-line in SW Spain. Catena, 79, 153–162.
Zavala, L.M., García-Moreno, J., Gordillo-Rivero, A.J., Jordán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., 2014. Natural soil water repellency in different types of Mediterranean woodlands. Geoderma, 226–227, 170–178.
Zhang, B., Peng, X.H., Zhao, Q.G., Hallett, P.D., 2004. Eluviation of dissolved organic carbon under wetting and drying and its influence on water infiltration in degraded soils restored with vegetation. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 55, 725–737.