The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria) to Štúrovo (Slovakia) under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975). Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501) is discussed.
Angelini, H., 1955. Danube flood in July 1954, Bratislava. Hydrological Study. HMI Department of Hydrology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 34 p. (In Slovak.)
Bardossy, A., Molnar, Z., 2004. Statistical and geostatistical investigations into the effects of the Gabcikovo hydropower plant on the groundwater resources of northwest Hungary. Hydrol. Sci. J., 49, 4, 611–623.
Blaškovičová, L., Danáčová, Z., Lovasová, L., Simor, V., Škoda, P., 2013. Evolution of selected hydrological characteristics of the Danube at Bratislava. Hydrological Final Report. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Bratislava, pp. 1–15. (In Slovak.)
Blöschl, G., Nester, T., Komma, J., Parajka, J., Perdigão, R.A.P., 2013. The June 2013 flood in the Upper Danube basin, and comparisons with the 2002, 1954 and 1899 floods. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 7, 9533–9573.
Corbus, C., 2002. Contributions to approaching the floods propagation with the help of the theory of the systems. In: Proc. XXI Conference of the Danube Countries on Hydrological Forecasting (Bucharest, Romania). National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest, ISBN 973-0-02759-5.
Čížová, M., 1992. Influence of hydrological forecast by anthropogenic activity. In: Proc. XVI Conference of the Danube Countries on Hydrological forecasting, Kelheim, Germany, pp. 301–305.
Danáčová, M., Szolgay, J., Výleta R., 2015. Estimation of the relationship between the travel time of flood peaks and peak discharge on the Poprad River by Multilinear flood routing. International Journal of New Technology and Research (IJNTR), 1, 6, 2015, 35–39. ISSN: 2454-4116
Horváthová, B., 2003. Flood is not only the High Water. VEDA, Bratislava, 232 p. (In Slovak.)
Kalinin, G.P., Milyukov, P.I., 1957. On the computation of unsteady flow in open channels. Meteorol. Gidrol. Z., 10, 10–18.
Kim, D.H., Georgakakos, A.P., 2014. Hydrologic routing using nonlinear cascaded reservoirs. Water Resour. Research., 50, 8, 7000–7019.
Kiss, A., 2011. Floods and long-term water-level changes in medieval Hungary. Doctoral dissertation. Central European University Budapest, Hungary, 323 p.
Kjeldsen, T.R., Macdonald, N., Lang, M., Mediero, L., Albuquerque, T., Bogdanowicz, E., Brázdil, R., Castellarin, A., David, V., Fleig, A., Gul, G.O., Kriauciuniene, J., Kohnova, S., Merz, B., Nicholson, O., Roald, L.A., Salinas, J.L., Sarauskiene, D., Sraj, M., Strupczewski, W., Szolgay, J., Toumazis, A., Vanneuville, W., Veijalainen, N., Wilson, D., 2014. Documentary evidence of past floods in Europe and their utility in flood frequency estimation. J. Hydrol., 517, 963–973. ISSN 0022-1694.
Kresser, W., 1957. The Flooding of the Danube. Springer Verlag, Vienna, Austria. (In German.)
Laurenson, M., 1964. A catchment storage model for runoff routing. J. Hydrol., 2, pp. 141–163.
Linsley, R.K., Kohler, M.A., Paulhus, J.L.H., 1949. Applied Hydrology. McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 502–530.
Malone, T.A., Cordery, I., 1989. An assessment of network models in flood forecasting. New directions of surface water modelling. In: Kavvas, M.L. (Ed.): Proceedings of Baltimore Symposium. IAHS 181. IAHS Press, Wallingford, pp. 115–124.
McCarthy, G.T., 1938. The unit hydrograph and flood routing. In: Proc. Conference of the North Atlantic Division of US Corporations of Engineers, New London, Conn.
Melo, M., Pišút, P., Melová, K., Viglaš, P., 2014. Historical flood marks from the 1775 Danube flood in Bratislava. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 15, 2, 308–319. (In Slovak.)
Mikhailova, M., Morozov, V., Cheroy N., 2012. Extreme hydrological events in the Danube River basin over the last decades. Water Resour., 39, 2, 161–179.
Mitková, V., 2005. Transformation of the flood waves of the Danube River in Kienstock – Sturovo reach. In: CD ROM Proc. Conf. Hydrological days 2005 – Hydrology for integrated management of the water resources and Conference of young specialists in hydrology, climatology and water managers. SHMI, STU, Bratislava, pp. 784–795, ISBN 80-88907-53-5.
Mitková, V., Pekárová, P., 2003. The water levels forecast of the August 2002 flood of the Danube River at Bratislava station. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 4, 1, 176–182. (In Slovak.)
Mitková, V., Kubeš, R., Szolgay, J., Pekárová, P., 2004. Simulation of 1899 and 1954 Danube flood waves transformation in the river reach Kienstock – Bratislava in the present hydraulic conditions. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 5, 1, 52–62. (In Slovak.)
Mitková, V., Pekárová, P., Miklánek, P., Pekár, J., 2005. Analysis of flood propagation changes in the Kienstock – Bratislava reach of the Danube River. Hydrol. Sci. J., 50, 4, 655–668.
Nash, J.E., 1957. The form of the instantaneous unit hydrograph. In: Proc. IAHS General Assembly, Toronto, Canada, pp. 3–14.
Nash, J.E., 1960. A unit hydrograph study with particular reference to British catchments, Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 17, 249–282.
Opatovská, G., 2002. Influence of sedimentation on water level changes of Danube in Bratislava. Vodohosp. Sprav., 4, 11–12. (In Slovak.)
Pekárová, P., Pekár, J., Miklánek, P., 2001. River model of nonlinear cascade NLN-Danube of Danube River between Ybbs and Nagymaros in EXCEL 97. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 2, 2, 241–246.
Pekárová, P., Szolgay, J., Mitková, V., Kubeš, R., 2004. Calibration of two hydrologic routing models of the Danube flood waves transformation between Kienstock – Bratislava river reach. Acta Hydrologica Slovaca, 5, 1, 24–33.
Pekárová, P., Miklánek, P., Melo, M., Halmová, D., Pekár, J., Bačová Mitková, V., 2014. Flood Marks along the Danube River between Passau and Bratislava. Veda, Bratislava, 102 p. ISBN 978-80-224-1408-1.
Perumal, M., Price, R.K., 2013. A fully mass conservative variable parameter McCarthy–Muskingum method: theory and verification. J. Hydrol., 502, 89–102. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.08.023.
Price, R.K., 1973. Flood routing methods for British rivers. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 15, 913–930.
Sahoo, B., 2013. Field application of the multilinear Muskingum discharge routing method. Water Resour. Manag., 27, 1193–1205. doi: 10.1007/s11269-012-0228-5.
Svoboda, A., 1969. Changes in flood regime along the river channel. Partial Report IH SAS, Bratislava. (In Slovak.)
Svoboda, A., 1970. Some practical aspects use the mathematical models in hydrology. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 18, 3, 225–238.
Svoboda, A., Hajtášová, K., 1996. Comparison of short-term forecasting methods on the Danube used after completion of the Gabcikovo structure. In: Proc. XVIII Conf. of the Danube Countries. Technical University, Graz, Austria, pp. B133–B139.
Svoboda, A., Pekárová, P., Miklánek, P., 2000. Flood Hydrology of Danube between Devín and Nagymaros. SVH – IH SAS, Bratislava, 96 p.
Szilagyi, J., Pinter, N., Venczel, R., 2008. Application of a routing model for detecting channel flow changes with minimal data. J. Hydrol. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(2008)13:6(521), 521–526.
Szolgay, J., 2003. Multilinear discrete cascade model for river flow routing and real time forecasting in river reaches with variable wave speed. In: Montanari et al. (Eds.): Proceedings of the ESF LESC Exploratory Workshop on Hydrological Risk: recent advances in peak river flow modeling, prediction and real-time forecasting. Assessment of the impacts of land use and climate changes. University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 14 p.
Tang, X., Knight, D.W., Samuels, P.G., 2001. Wave speed discharge relationship from cross-section survey. Water and Maritime Eng., 148, 2, 81–96.
Tarpanelli, A, Barbetta, S., Brocca, L., Moramarco, T., 2013. River discharge estimation by using altimetry data and simplified flood routing modeling. Remote Sensing, 5, 9, 4145–4162. doi: 10.3390/rs5094145.
Todini, E., 2007. A mass conservative and water storage consistent variable parameter Muskingum-Cunge approach. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1645–1659.
Wong, T.H.F., Laurenson, E.M., 1984. A model of flood wave speed - discharge characteristics of rivers. Water Resources Res., 20, 1883–1890.